Chlamydia in cats is an infectious disease. Called intracellular parasites of the genus Clamydia. It was first described in 1942 by Baker.
Description of the causative agent
Chlamydia are extremely interesting organisms in terms of biology. Their small size, about 300 nanometers, as well as the dependence of reproduction on the host cell, coupled with intra-cytoplasmic localization, allowed researchers to erroneously refer them to viruses. But the presence of a certain similarity with gram-negative microbes and sensitivity to some antibiotics allowed them today to be considered obligate intracellular parasites of high specialization.
Chlamydia tolerates a low temperature, but sensitive to high temperatures. So, heating up to 80 degrees Celsius kills them for 10 minutes. They are destroyed by a half-percentage solution of phenol, a two-percent solution of sodium hydroxide and a solution of chloramine.
Different strains and types of chlamydia can cause a number of diseases, sometimes quite
Source of infection
In the environment of cats, chlamydia is widespread. Thus, about 70% of animals of this species are affected by the disease. This is due to the presence in the nature of an uncontrolled reservoir of the source of the infection. The main carriers of chlamydia are sick cats, birds, small rodents( mice, rats).The causative agent enters the external environment with urine, feces, milk, saliva.
Mechanism of development of the disease
Chlamydia penetrates the body in one of three ways: alimentary( with food), through the sexual way, aerogenously( through the respiratory system).Nurseries can purchase for the feeding of their wards the meat of dead or forcedly killed animals from farms that are unsuccessful for this disease and who have not passed the veterinary and sanitary examination in due measure. Intrauterine infection( from mother to fetus) is also possible.
Epithelial tissues in contact with the outside world and capable of rapid renewal, serve as the initial environment for the development of this infection. The cells of the cylindrical epithelium with which the mucous membrane of the conjunctiva, the rectum, the canal of the cervix, the urethra, the stomach, the small intestine, the pharynx region are affected mainly. Once in such a cell, pathogens of the disease, showing specific activity, neutralize the main cellular defense mechanism, which enables them to freely reproduce in the future. The life cycle of this type of microorganism is about 48 hours, and then the affected epithelial cell disintegrates and throws out new chlamydia.
Over time, parasites evolved and acquired the ability to reproduce both in the epithelium and in macrophages( cells of the immune system).Macrophages carry the pathogen throughout the body, and it can penetrate into any internal organ, spinal cord or brain, joints. This form of the disease ends with the death of the pet, but in cats, fortunately, it is rare.
Chlamydia in cats: symptoms of
Treatment of animals with this disease should begin as soon as possible. But everything is complicated by a blurred clinical picture. The incubation period, according to various data, lasts from a couple of days to two to three weeks. Then there are signs of chlamydia in cats. The acute form of the disease begins with a slight increase in temperature, minor discharge from the nose and eyes of the cat. But the animal still eats well, and discomfort due to conjunctivitis does not interfere with it. First, the infection affects only one eye, and the second is thrown in five to ten days.
Later the disease proceeds with secretions from serous eyes, blepharospasm( spasm of the eyelids), chemosis( when the conjunctiva is protruded through the eye gap).Later, the secondary infection is associated with secondary viral or bacterial, and the discharge acquires a mucopurulent nature. Appears reddening of the conjunctiva, which becomes brick red or bright red. This color is more intense on the vaults. Individual vessels protrude. If the disease has taken a chronic form, then there will be a slight reddening of the conjunctiva, small discharge, half of the eye is closed by the third century. Follicular conjunctivitis may occur.
If you do not treat chlamydia in cats, the symptoms will disappear after three to four weeks, but a lot of mucopurulent discharge from the eyes, as well as conjunctival hyperemia, persists for several months.18 months from the conjunctiva can be allocated chlamydia, which was proved experimentally.
If the disease occurs in this form, then the heart and lungs are affected in the body. Chlamydia in cats symptoms in this case has such: shortness of breath, wheezing, cough. If the animal is not treated, death will occur one day later due to pulmonary edema.
Asymptomatic course of
This infection is typical for adult cats. Suspicion of the disease in the owners appears after the birth of unviable kittens. In cats, it is also difficult to detect this disease if there are no signs of damage to the urinary system. Infecting with chlamydia from a cat cat can when mating. A sick female has a permanent chlamydia reservoir in the form of an infected cervical canal through which males become infected. And in the latter, the pathogen settles in the testes and gets outside with the sperm.
Sometimes a ptomian after mating with a sick cat can be in a depressed state, he is capricious in eating, clamidiosis of the eyes appears in cats. All pregnancy cat is not treated because of mild symptoms, and birth ends with the birth of dead kittens, or they die after a couple of days. And if the offspring still live, then it lags behind in development and growth from peers.
In females, in whom pregnancy is the first, the largest number of stillbirths, abortions and other pathologies of fruiting occur. Abortion occurs most often in the second half of pregnancy, when only a few days remain until delivery.
Chlamydia can also occur in kittens. They have this disease called chlamydial neonatal conjunctivitis. The kitten is infected either through the placenta( transplacental), or during labor, when it passes through the birth canal of a sick mother. Chlamydia penetrates into any open fetal cavity and causes an infectious pathology. The signs of the disease in newborn kittens only appear when they open their eyes. Double-sided or one-sided conjunctivitis is revealed: the eyes are narrowed, the conjunctiva is dark pink, edematic, the eyelids are soiled with discharge of purulent-catarrhal or catarrhal nature. Often from the nose also go catarrhal discharge, which freeze and form crusts on the upper jaw.
Kittens have coughing and sneezing. At the beginning of the disease, they still suck mother and eat top dressing, but with the development of infection, the kittens are weakening more and more and can no longer hold the nipple in their mouths, can not chew. Soon it becomes noticeable how difficult it is to move the jaw. Submandibular and other lymph nodes of the head increase in size, and the kittens soon die. Surviving animals suffer from slow rhinitis and conjunctivitis for years and allocate all this time to parasites in the environment.
Chlamydia in cats in pure form is noted only at the initial stage of the disease. Given that this parasite affects the open cavities of the body, where there are many other microorganisms, including opportunistic ones, it provokes the development of other diseases. Defeating the cells of the epithelium and destroying them from the inside, the chlamydia create the optimal environment for the attack of another microflora. So there is a secondary or mixed infection, which complicates the course of the disease.
The peculiarity of this disease, which significantly complicates the diagnosis, is a chronic course combined with an erased clinical picture. Therefore, in order to appoint the right treatment for chlamydia in cats, it is necessary to conduct laboratory diagnostics of the pathogen as early as possible and correctly. This can be done in a specialized veterinary diagnostic laboratory.
After confirmation of the diagnosis, a scheme of treatment of chlamydia in cats with antibiotics from the tetracycline series is prescribed. They suppress the enzymes necessary for chlamydia to synthesize their own protein. Erythromycin and Tylosin are also effective.
It should be remembered that the treatment of chlamydia in cats alone without the advice of a doctor will not bring the desired effect. And the use of antibiotics not prescribed by a veterinarian can cause the development of resistance to the pathogen, which will worsen prospects for treatment many times.
The immune system of the feline organism gives a strong rebuff to the "enemy".Cells are beginning to be developed that recognize the parasite and mark the localization sites of the enemy. Then comes the time of the killer cells, which destroy the infectious agent, and after them the cleaning cages, which absorb the remains of the parasite, are already rushing. At the same time, a second front opens: macrophages and neutrophilic leukocytes. They help with the absorption of chlamydia and form an inflammatory reaction when the body temperature rises in the animal. It has a detrimental effect on the infection. Unfortunately, not all chlamydia perish. Some of them adapt to immunity.
To prevent chlamydia in cats, we must exclude the contact of their pets with a potential source of infection. Make your pet a preventative vaccination( Fel-o-Vax - American vaccine).If the animal exhibits similar symptoms, show it to the doctor to diagnose the disease as quickly as possible and to prescribe an effective treatment.
If viscous is planned, it should be asked the opposite side of the conclusion about the results of the survey for this infection.
Chlamydiosis in cats is transmitted to a person
Even in the last century, many patients were noted, in whom pneumonia was atypical. And in all cases, the source of infection were domestic cats who were sick with chlamydia or "cat's pneumonia."Also described cases of acute follicular conjunctivitis, when patients in the house were infected pets. Antibodies to the infectious onset and in one and the other case were isolated from the blood of the hosts and their pets. Moreover, people immediately fell ill after the appearance of signs of illness in their pets.
There are also adherents of the theory that chlamydia from a cat to a person can not be transmitted. Their main rationale is that Chlamydophila felis, responsible for the disease in animals, is not able to be transmitted to a person even with very close communication.
In which of theories to believe, everyone decides for himself. After all, autosuggestion can also act as a kind of "protection" from the onset of the disease. But most scientists and practitioners refer the infection to anthropozoonosis diseases( chlamydia in cats are transmitted to humans), and owners of sick animals, as well as veterinary specialists involved in their treatment, should observe all necessary preventive measures.
Also, one should not allow your child to squeeze a pet who has a clamidiosis in cats, or has similar symptoms. The modern world is very unstable, and every day more and more new "sores" are being announced. Therefore, even the most minimal measures to ensure the safety of their and their loved ones will not be superfluous.