Medical statistics suggest that this pathology is quite common among the world population( about 2-3%).Mostly sick - children of middle and younger age. Physicians distinguish two types of disease: zooanthroponous and anthroponous. The latter is not so common. Healthy people pick up the infection from sick people or through infected household items, clothes, etc. The first type is much more common. The source of infection is infected dogs and cats, objects contaminated with the hair of sick little brothers.
Microsporia for external symptoms in humans is very similar to surface trichophytosis. However, there are some peculiarities. They consist in the appearance of foci o
Smooth skin is often affected. In the place where the fungus infiltrated, a patch of characteristic red color with a pronounced edema and sharp boundaries appears. It grows rapidly in diameter and is covered with crusts and bubbles. The size of such a stain is, as a rule, not more than 3 cm. The usual localization - arms, shoulders, neck, face.
After this statistical information, many will think that in our enlightened age so little is known about this disease: what it represents, how it is treated and who is ill. How is lichen in animals? That's what you can tell about him.
Microsporia is a chronic disease of cats, dogs, fur-bearing animals, caused by a fungus. It is characterized by a cellular superficial inflammation of the skin and breakage of the coat on the affected areas, and sometimes even claws. This disease can be transmitted to people.
The causative agent of the disease is a small pathogenic fungus of the genus Microsporum, with each animal species corresponding to its own: lichen in domestic cats and dogs causes M. gypseum, in pigs - M. nanum, in horses - M. equinum, etc.a microscope shows that the microspores are located inside the affected hair in the form of rounded spores or septovanogo mycelium. Fungus is easy to grow in the laboratory, using as a nutrient medium Saburo agar or wort agar and observing the temperature of +26-28 degrees.
Spores of these fungi are extremely resistant to environmental influences. So, in the affected hair or skin scrapes, they can last from two to five years, in paper bags at room temperature - three to four years. Resistant to freezing, drying and direct sunlight. Boiling kills them in 2-3 minutes.
Who is sick
The most common are dogs, cats, fur-bearing animals. Less often - predatory animals, mice, guinea pigs, goats, sheep, pigs. Microsporia in dogs and cats often affects young pets. The source of the disease is sick animals and vectors of infection, which for a long time infect objects of the environment with skin scales and infected hairs containing fungus. Especially dangerous are stray dogs, cats and rodents, which can be carriers of this disease for a long time. Contaminated healthy animals when kept together with patients or through infected items( food, water, litter, clothes and shoes of the owners).Cats and dogs catch fungus when sniffing, licking or during a fight.
How the disease develops
The fungus develops in the upper layers of the skin and causes superficial inflammation, skin peeling. The food of the coat is disturbed, it becomes dry and brittle. Microsporia in cats( photo) manifests itself in the form of hairless sections on the skin of various shapes and sizes.
Microsporia in cats does not appear immediately. The incubation period is from 22 to 47 days. The disease can be superficial, deep, worn or hidden. Dogs and cats often get the last form, sometimes superficial. Hidden can be detected only by microscopic or luminescent research. The superficial form is more often sick with kittens.
When viewed in the area of the muzzle, paws, tail on the skin, round spots are visible, covered with scales. In addition to scales, whitish-gray crusts with sparse hairs are sometimes seen. The hairs easily break off. There may be complete baldness of the skin in certain areas. Microsporia in dogs manifests itself in the form of foci along the back, muzzle, trunk;on the paws - less often.
The veterinarian puts on the basis of the examination of the animal, as well as examinations under the microscope of wool and crusts from the affected areas. Having selected a sample of wool, the specialist grinds it with scissors and pours alkaline solution for 10-15 minutes. The material is then placed on a slide and examined for conidia or hyphae of pathogenic fungi. This method allows you to find and identify the fungus. If the case is doubtful, then you can coat the animal's hair without subjecting it to alkali treatment, and plant it on a nutrient medium. Thus, a pure culture of the pathogen will be isolated, which will allow an accurate diagnosis.
In addition to microscopic examination, microsporia in cats can be detected by the method of luminescent diagnostics. With this method of examination, the hairline of a cat or dog is highlighted with a special lamp in a darkened room, the presence of a specific emerald green glow indicates a disease.
Microsporia - how to treat?
It is very difficult to cure an animal, but it is possible. Intramuscular injection of a special vaccine two or three times with an interval of two weeks. Local microsporia in cats is treated by the method of treatment of affected areas for 20-30 days with 10% salicylic alcohol solution, 10% salicylic ointment, 10% alcohol solution of iodine, ointment "Yam", iodine, myco-septin or other fungicidal solutions and ointments. To the causative agent does not "walk" throughout the body, the coat around the affected areas is better to cut. For a speedy recovery, a course of immunomodulators is prescribed.
In severe disease, treatment of microsporia in cats and dogs additionally includes antifungal medications that are given orally. They resort to extensive foci, claw damage, or when long-haired animals are ill.
If the owner time to notice the microsporia and quickly turn to a veterinarian, the diseased animal is successfully cured. The owner will only need to be patient and follow all the doctor's recommendations without fail. Microsporia in dogs and cats is treated with a course of three to six weeks.
In addition to the animal itself, you need to take care of the place where it was kept. The apartment or other room is irradiated with a mercury quartz lamp, wet cleaning with disinfectants is carried out. Hand after each contact with the diseased animal should be washed with soap. You can not allow his presence in the bedroom, and even more so - in bed. It is necessary to exclude the communication of children with the sick animal. The timely treatment and observance of preventive measures will help to stop the infection of people. If there are any lesions on the skin, then you should immediately contact a dermatologist.
Clearing the territory of
spores As discussed above, the ringworm controversy can persist for a very long time and is capable of infecting an animal. Therefore it is very important to clean the living space of the pet from them. Since the spores are light enough, they can be transported through the air together with the fallen hair and dust. Therefore, when cleaning, it is necessary to exclude the ways that help this transfer. Furniture, curtains, carpets, etc. should be vacuumed and stripped for disinfection. Places where access is difficult( heating radiators), too, must be cleaned. Rusted and wooden surfaces should be freshly painted. Wet cleaning should be done with a solution of detergents. So, chlorine bleach, diluted in water 1 to 10, within 10 minutes will kill almost all microorganisms. It will also be necessary to disinfect the brushes and combs for the wool, sleeping place, toys and other things with which the animal was in contact.
In order to prevent the animal from becoming ill, a number of rules must be followed. The first is regular vaccination, because it is always easier to prevent a disease than to deal with its long-term treatment. For the prevention of microsporia, there are a number of vaccines: Polivac-TM, Mentawak, Vakderm-F, Vakderm. Secondly, contact with stray animals as the main source of infection should be avoided. Third - it is necessary to regularly disinfect the places where the animal is kept. Well, the last - to properly feed your pet.