For people who want to do beekeeping, which is gaining popularity, the most important thing is to buy beehives. But they are quite expensive, so you can try to make them yourself. We will talk about how to make a hive with our own hands.
Of all the variants of the hives, and there are more than 500 varieties, one must choose one and perform exactly. The main thing here is a clear observance of all sizes and angles. Most beekeepers use double-walled 16-frame hives. The dimensions of the frames for hives of this design are 435 x 300 mm.
Manufacturing procedure and dimensions
- Internal part .First of all, create walls that will be inside the hive. The thickness of the boards should be 20 mm. Join them in a dowel, using casein glue. The exact size of the hive: the length of the rear and front walls is 605 mm, and their width is 320 mm. The length of the side walls is 530 mm and the width is 320 mm. They must have grooves, the depth of which is 5 mm, and the width - 20 mm. Between them - a space equal to 450 mm.
- External part of .After this, the outer walls are made: the front and the back. They are collected from boards, the thickness of which is 15 mm. The width of the finished walls is 500 mm, and the length is 675 mm. The length of the side walls is 560 mm, and the height is 500 mm. Each board of external walls is nailed separately directly at the place of permanent placement of the hive. And the inner walls, which are fixed with casein glue, are fastened with temporary pads. They are nailed with nails. Creating a bee hive, you need to ensure that all of its corners were always 90 °.
Fastening of the upper and lower gutter
While the beehive does not have a bottom, but only the inner walls, it is convenient to make the bottom tray, the size of which is 10 x 250 mm. They retreat from the right wall 50 mm and cut a hole in a rectangular shape. The upper chimney is made a bit smaller, measuring 10 x 100 mm, deviating from the right wall 120 mm, and in height - below the top of the frame bars by 30 mm.
In the picture you see such details of the hive marked with numbers:
- Wooden bars, lateral: width 10 mm, length 20 mm.
- Top board.
- Slot( passenger).
To be a beehive healthy, you need to effectively combat varroatosis. To do this, a hole in the wedge-shaped shape is cut in the back wall in the under-frame part, after which the insert is made, which tightly closes this cutout. This solution allows you to conveniently carry out the prevention and treatment of bees, without seriously disturbing them.
Holes for flying bees - flaps, it is necessary to protect from the space between the inner and outer parts of the hive. To do this, use boards, whose thickness is 10 mm, and the width is such that it completely closes the passage of insects to the interstitial space. To better understand all the subtleties, it is worth exploring the drawings of the hives that are presented here.
On the sketch of the hive in a section along the frames are shown:
- Front and rear inner walls.
- External walls.
- The space between the outer and inner walls.
- Plank with slotted folds.
- Lining from the splines at the joints.
- Strap for the roof.
- Roof( gable).
- Ventilation hole
- Board from the top of the socket.
To the inner walls of the hive nail the first flooring. The length of its boards is 635 mm. It is necessary that the first of them, nailed under the front wall, protruded by 15 mm. To her, then the boards for the arrival of bees are mounted, and also with her help they check the corners of the floor with respect to the walls of the hive. Focusing on it as a mark, nail all the flooring of the first floor. It is necessary to make it so as not to block the space between the inner and outer frame. Then, turning over the beehive, ruberoid and cardboard are nailed to the floor just made. And from above build a lower floor, which closes the space between the outer and inner parts. It is necessary that the so-called winter hive warms its bees well in the cold season.
The sides of the side inner walls are nailed down by turns. Start from the bottom. Thus, the front and rear outer walls are created and the insulator is stuffed between the inner and outer parts of the hive. In addition, on the outer front board, which is located from the bottom, cut out the tray. And on the back make a hole for the frame. In order for the outer walls to stick well together over the nest and to be stable, they are nailed to the outer lining. To the front and back surfaces, the side walls( outer) are nailed. To cut off the top of the inter-wall space, 40x20 mm rails are attached to the inner surface along the entire perimeter.
In the photo above - the hive drawing( top view):
- The front and rear walls of the interior.
- Side wall inner part.
- The space between them.
- Side walls - external.
- Front and back walls of the outer part.
- Slots for secure connection of the front and rear in the inner side walls.
- The tray is the bottom one.
To install the frames, folds of 10 x 10 mm depth are made on the slats on the front and back sides of the hive. They should lie close to the material that is between the walls and is a heater. And the slats, connected in corners, should be on the same plane with the supplied frames. The chosen dimensions of the framework for the hives must be precisely executed so that all components of the structure are perfectly fitted.
Materials that are used as insulation for the hive
Excellent for warming the mossy sphagnum moss, in this condition it is elastic and pliable. It is laid on the inner wall, after which it is pressed with boards, creating an external surface. Also a good insulation is obtained from foam. This synthetic material is cut into plates having a thickness of 22 mm, and also laid down by pressing the outer boards.
It is not recommended to use
as a heater. Materials such as tow, wool, cotton wool and the like are better not to use, because they do not let in air and have different smells. All these factors negatively affect bees.
The roof of the hive
The boards of 15 mm thick create a roof tie. Its height should be 120 mm. Due to this, a free space for the store and a cushion are formed between the roof and the nest. The cushion is placed over the canvas, which lies on the nest in the inner space of the sides.
Dimensions of the hive pillow
To prevent heat leakage, the pillow and, of course, the pillow case, there should be 100 mm more space between the bead hulls. Therefore, its dimensions are: width - 538 mm, and length - 750 mm. The cushion should be larger so that it can be squeezed tightly between the sides, thus preventing heat loss. Stuffing it better with moss, it's free stuff. In addition, he is great for this.
Before you, the hive drawing from the front wall in the section:
- The bottom.
- The side walls are internal.
- Side walls - external.
- Space between them.
- Planks( closing).
- The side frame slats.
- Summer - upper.
- Place under the frames.
- The bottom tray.
In the above instructions, we examined in detail how to make a hive with your own hands and what you should pay attention to when creating it. The most important thing is to carefully adjust all the details so that there are no cracks. After all, drafts are the main enemy of the bee kingdom.
Expanded polystyrene hives
Another means for creating beehives is expanded polystyrene. It is a synthetic material that does not rot. Between beekeepers of the old and new generations there is a dispute: choose a tree or create beehives from expanded polystyrene. Many simply do not want to switch to modern standards and prefer to do everything using old, time-tested technologies. However, it is worth taking a closer look at this new material in the beehive business.
In wooden hives, rot can start. Her bacteria are able to live and eat in the tree, because this is a natural and well-known material. But expanded polystyrene can not give food to any living organisms, because it is made by chemical means. For this reason, harmful bacteria simply can not exist in such material.
How to make a hive with your own hands of expanded polystyrene
For a hive, it's worth buying high strength polystyrene, then it will not be able to chew bees, and it will be quite reliable. And the design itself is done in the same way as it is made of wood, according to the technology described above.
In beehives made of this material, any liquid simply rolls down the grooves, exiting outwards. Therefore, moisture can not be retained in polystyrene construction, which is very good.
We have fully answered questions about how to make a hive with our own hands and what is now an alternative material for their creation. Each owner chooses how to lead his apiary and how to make hives. However, do not neglect innovations and immediately abandon them. Perhaps using new techniques and materials, you will discover previously unprecedented opportunities. Therefore, it is worth being open to innovation. And if they can not fulfill the mission entrusted to them, then they already have to give up.