Exotic native of India eggplant - a delicious and incredibly useful vegetable, which has long earned the love and respect of domestic gardeners. It is rather difficult to grow it in the temperate latitudes of Russia. This gentle southerner reacts even to small differences in temperature, so the best solution is to plant the eggplants in the greenhouse. In an enclosed space, excellent conditions for the development and growth of vegetables are created, similar to the humid tropical heat of Burma and India. We will talk about how to grow eggplant in a greenhouse, what questions can arise and how to care for plants.
Rules for the cultivation of eggplant
The main condition for the proper development of eggplant is the cultivation of them separately from other crops. An exception can only be tomatoes. This is the only tolerated neighborhood. Eggplant makes special demands practically at all stages of development: when preparing the soil, planting seedlings, performing irrigation and maintaining the tem
Eggplant maintenance in the greenhouse begins with soil preparation. Take care of the soil is necessary, as the eggplant is demanding and very whimsical, it is sensitive to the composition of the soil and must be planted in properly prepared soil. Soil in the greenhouse:
▪ update, removing fragments of roots and remnants of aboveground parts of plants;
▪ spill several times with water;
▪ disinfect by dissolving 60 g of copper sulfate in 10 l of water.
After all the steps are taken, the ground should be allowed to dry and dig into the spade bayonet. Eggplant does not accept acidic soils. To reduce acidity, it is necessary to apply dolomite flour in a volume of 50-60 g per 1 sq. Km.meter. For a good development, eggplants need fertilizers. The best top dressing, of course, is organic - manure or compost humus. It is added to the ground before planting at the rate of 0.5 buckets per 1 sq. Km.meter. In addition to organic, complex mineral fertilizers with a balanced composition of nitrogen and phosphoric fertilizing are also needed. Another condition necessary for successful rooting of seedlings is to plant the eggplants in the soil heated to + 15 ° C.
When answering the question about how to grow aubergine in a greenhouse, it should be remembered that, in addition to preparing the soil, there are many different nuances. Well dug up and treated soil in the greenhouse before planting should be leveled. Then it is necessary to mark out wells with a depth of 10-15 cm, maintaining an interval of 45-50 cm between them. The spacing is 60 cm. When planting seedlings, each well is spilled with 1.5 liters of manganese or "Fitosporin" solution and a handful of wood ash is added. It is important to check the temperature of the soil and air in the greenhouse. Planting should be carried out with soil warming up to +15 ° C, and air - up to + 18-20 ° C.
Eggplant seedlings require careful handling - it is very fragile. Plant plants should be carefully, trying not to damage the tender root system. Before planting the seedlings in the ground, it is pre-watered to make it more convenient to remove from the containers, and a clod of earth on the roots does not crumble.
The seedling should be planted slightly deeper than the level at which it was in the cassette or container. When the planting is complete, the soil is compacted and watered again.
How to water the eggplants in the greenhouse
After the initial stage, proceed to the next. It begins with watering, which is very important for culture. Eggplants love water, so water them regularly. If there is a deficit of moisture, flowers will begin to crumble, and the fruits will lose significantly in quality and size. The main condition for watering: water should be warm, its temperature - not less than + 23 ° С.The use of cold water can negate all efforts to grow vegetables. The first watering is carried out after 5 days after planting. Subsequently, the regularity of watering should correspond to once a week.
In the process of watering it is impossible to moisten the leaves of eggplant, the water must come under the root. It is necessary to ensure water access to the roots, it should not drain on the bed. Therefore, you need to periodically loosen the ground. The frequency and intensity of watering increases when the plant begins to bear fruit: now it should be watered 2 times a week, not allowing the drying of the soil. To obtain a large crop of aubergines in a greenhouse, it is necessary to create ideal conditions: high soil moisture with comfortable humidity. It is better to water the vegetables in the morning and always arrange airing. This is necessary to prevent the occurrence of fungal diseases.
How to grow eggplant in a greenhouse? In addition to timely irrigation for a good development of culture, you need to remember the need for feeding. For the entire vegetative period, it will take 3-4 times to apply fertilizers. First time feed the plant 2-3 weeks after planting. Culture during this time has time to take root well and develop a root system capable of receiving nutrition from the soil.
The second feeding should be carried out before the eggplant bloom. While the plants do not bear fruit, they should be fed with complex universal fertilizers, for example, "Soluble" or "Kemira", dissolving 35-40 g of the agent in 10 liters of water. When tying fruit, they switch to nitrogen and phosphoric fertilizing: 30 g of superphosphate and ammonium nitrate per bucket of water. For a better development of eggplant, you should alternate the introduction of organic fertilizers with mineral fertilizers, but you can not abuse them, either. It should not be forgotten that during the fruiting period, plants are particularly vulnerable to various pests. Therefore, from time to time, simple prevention should be done: periodically sprinkle the rows between the plants with wood ash.
Observe the temperature regime of
Do not forget about maintaining the optimum temperature in the greenhouse. It ranges from + 25 ° C to +28 ° C.Exceeding the 35-degree barrier will cause the fruit to wither, and a decrease to + 13 ° C - a stop in growth. Therefore, it is necessary to constantly monitor the temperature regime: to ventilate the greenhouse in hot weather, without allowing drafts, as the eggplant can lose color, and also to warm it when it gets colder, of course, as far as possible. Failure to comply with these rules can seriously damage yields. Therefore, the answers to questions, for example, about why eggplants wilt in the greenhouse, should be sought precisely in the failure to implement recommendations for growing vegetables. Aubergine wilting can occur due to negligent watering, lack of loosening, improper ventilation or, conversely, a draft that has arisen. And maybe the eggplant has become the victim of an attack of some heinous infection. The reasons can be as many as you like, but to exclude the maximum number of them, you must adhere to these conditions.
Special conditions for a good development
A few words about greenhouses. With proper care, plants feel good under any shelter. But from a purely practical point of view, aubergines in a polycarbonate greenhouse have more comfortable growing conditions. In such greenhouses it's easier to take care of them, to properly ventilate, water and notice pests in time. Greenhouse crops are always more tender and fragile than those that grow in the open space. Carrying out a garter of tall varieties of eggplant to tapestries for the proper formation of a bush, this must not be forgotten. Low-grown varieties do not need a garter. To patronize the eggplant is not necessary, it is enough to remove the stubble leaves and underdeveloped ovaries from the stem. If eggplants are not tied up in the greenhouse, you can help them by dissolving 2 g of boric acid in 10 liters of warm water and sprinkling the plants abundantly. After a while you should feed them."Blue" react sharply to the lack of fertilizers. For example, eggplants in a greenhouse turn yellow due to a lack of nitrogen, and leaves stretched out at an acute angle to the stalk are a sure sign of phosphorus starvation. Improper care for planting - watering with cold water, drafts, too high humidity, as well as untimely nitrogen fertilizing can lead to the dropping of flowers and ovaries.
Eggplant diseases in the greenhouse
Unfortunately, the eggplant is a very vulnerable vegetable. He has many enemies, for example, tobacco mosaic and late blight. In the fight against them, the preparations "Fitosporin" and "Zircon" proved to be very effective. Prophylactic irrigation solutions of these products will help protect eggplants from phytophthora and tobacco mosaic. A presowing treatment of the soil with preparations containing copper, will neutralize the earth.
Eggplants often suffer from fusariosis. This fungal disease is detrimental to the plant. The fungus, penetrating the culture through the root, affects the entire vascular system. That's why eggplants turn yellow in the greenhouse. This is the first sign of fusariosis. Then the leaves wilt and fall off. Since the vascular system is affected, it will not be possible to save the plant. On the transverse section of the stem, one can see a discoloration of the vascular ring - it becomes brown, and on the root collar there is a pinkish coating of mushroom spores. The cause of the problem can be infected seeds. In this case, you will need to change them. Failure to comply with the agrotechnology of growing eggplants can also cause various viral injuries. Therefore, the fight against them includes not only the processing of crops with drugs, but also various agricultural techniques. How to grow aubergine in a greenhouse without viral diseases? Let's try to understand what preventive measures are worth taking.
Fungus black leg causes thinning and darkening of the root neck. If this virus is damaged, the plant begins to fade gradually, and when it goes to the root system - it dies. Usually, the black leg hits the shoots, but it happens that the high humidity of the soil in the greenhouse awakens a virus accidentally caught in the ground.
To avoid such failures, the land in the greenhouse is completely changed or disinfected with a solution of bleach. And to prevent the emergence and development of the black leg should not thicken the crops, do not allow temperature changes and do not pour plants. Affected plants must be removed immediately, the soil loosened and sprinkled with ashes.
Mosaic is a disease characterized by mottled mosaic-green coloration and deformation of leaves, as well as a yellow spot on the fruit. Such damage can cause poor-quality seed material or mechanical damage when transplanting seedlings. Pre-sowing half-hourly seed treatment with 20 percent hydrochloric acid will help rid the planting from mosaic damage. If a disease is found in the greenhouse, it is necessary to remove and burn the diseased plants, and disinfect the garden tools.
Gray rot appears as dark expanding water spots on all aboveground parts of the plant, subsequently forming a gray coating. High humidity in the greenhouse acts as a catalyst for the development of the disease.
When aubergine is affected by this fungus, special treatment of plants and soil with fungicides is necessary, removal of contaminated crops and all plant residues from the greenhouse after harvesting vegetables.
Eggplant diseases in the greenhouse cause not only viruses, but also pests. Frequent, but uninvited guests are slugs, spider mites, whiteflies, Colorado beetle and aphids. The existing drug, harmless to humans, "Strela" is effective enough in the fight against pests and can be used in greenhouses. Eliminates sloughing loosening the soil with soil treatment with dry mustard powder or ground pepper in a mixture with wood ash. Spoils the mood of gardeners aphids on eggplants in the greenhouse. Against her, use carbofos if the fruit has not yet become tied, or sprayed with infusion of wood ash, which is prepared as follows: 1 cup of ash a day, insist in 10 liters of water. Use of toxic chemicals in the greenhouse is not recommended. Therefore, it is necessary to fight with the Colorado beetle and whitefly in the old proven ways. Against the whitefly, glue traps or Iskra-Bio are used. Beetles are collected by hand.
Eggplant maintenance in the greenhouse is carried out all season. Maintaining order in the beds with aubergines leads to the desired result: the collection of vegetables begins when the inherent size and color are achieved.