When building a sauna, it is necessary to arrange a quality plum. In this case, the room will not be smelled of stagnant water. The floors will last much longer. There are several options for installing a system for draining water from the washer and steam room. About them and we will tell further.
The simplest drain in the bath
First let's see how to make a drain in a bath of the simplest design. In the event that the ground under the building is sandy and easily absorbs water, you can not "bother" and arrange the receiver directly in it. At the same time under the washing, a pit is excavated, and the floors are made slightly inclined towards it. In order that the bath does not penetrate the unpleasant odor, in the foundation make holes-vent. However, more often the drain has a more complex structure. In this case, when pouring the foundation, if it is a band, it leaves an opening under the drain pipe.
Trench and drainage pipe
Under the pipe, which will drain the water, of course, you
Very close to the foundation to dig a catchment well or install a septic tank also should not be. The optimal distance from the walls of the bath to the receiver is 1-3 m. Crushed stone is poured onto the bottom of the trench. The question of how to make a drain in a bath, is reduced to including the pipes of what material and what diameter it is worth using. Usually for the device of water removal take plastic. Steel drainage quickly rust. The diameter of the pipe depends on how many people will bathe in the wash simultaneously. The minimum allowed is 50 mm. The trench must be excavated at an angle. The steeper the tube is, the better.
How to make a plum in the bath, we found out. Where will the used water go? As a receiver, an ordinary well is usually arranged. The depth should be at least 1.5 meters. The diameter depends on the amount of water taken. One person spends in the bath about 20 liters of water per visit. Five people, therefore, spend 100 liters. At this amount of water is enough for the diameter of the well in one meter. Next, the receiver must be covered with expanded clay or rubble by half. Walls are coated with clay. The top of the well is covered with boards and covered with earth. The pipe into it should enter a distance of about 60-70 cm from the upper boundary of the ground. This will prevent the freezing of sewage in winter.
At desire it is possible to arrange about a bath( a photo below) not a well, and the elementary receiver-septic. It is made from the usual standard plastic barrel. A pit is also excavated beforehand. Dig to the sand layer of the soil. Usually it is located at a depth of 1-1.5 meters. Further, as in the first case, a layer of crushed stone is poured onto the bottom. It must necessarily be tampered with.
In the side of the barrel a hole is drilled for the branch pipe, which will subsequently be connected to the drain pipe. In any septic tank, a message with open air should be provided. To ensure air exchange, in the bottom of the barrel in the middle of the hole is drilled for an exhaust pipe of small diameter. If this is not done, if the air pressure in the barrel increases during water intake, it will simply be squeezed out through the drain pipe into the bath room together with an unpleasant odor.
Next, a branch pipe is inserted into the side opening, and an exhaust pipe is mounted into the cut in the bottom. Then the barrel is placed in the pit bottom up. Then the socket of the branch pipe is put on the pipe leaving the ground, through which the water is drained from the bath. Even if the rubble at the bottom of the pit is tamped very carefully, the barrel may still permeate with time. To prevent slippage of the branch pipe from the pipe, it is bored to its sides with two screws. After installation, the space between the walls of the barrel and the walls of the pit is covered with crushed stone. Further the construction is sprinkled with earth.
Since the septic tank is on the street, someone can step on top of it. Therefore, in order to prevent the bottom of the barrel from being punctured, it should be covered with boards or a piece of thick sheet before filling it.
Discharge device in the bath itself
The drain in the bath floor can be arranged in several ways. Ground under the floor in any case, concrete with a slope to the pipe. Around it is arranged a small reception pit-tray. This is to ensure that the water leaves the bath faster. The floors are laid on logs. The latter put on concrete or brick square posts erected on this concrete foundation. Above the lag must necessarily be waterproofed with mastic or roofing material. Next, the floor boards are mounted. Sometimes they are not nailed, but simply stacked with a distance of 5 mm from each other. In these cracks and water flows out. From time to time, the boards are removed and dried in the open air. Such floors are called leaking.
Of course, such a floor device is not too convenient. Firstly, when walking, the boards will move, and secondly, in the winter, cold air will flow from the slits. Therefore, the floors in the bath are often made capital.
Tiled floor in sauna
Sometimes a tiled floor unit can be used. In baths go including to relax and rest. And as ceramics - the material is slippery, moreover, it also heats up at high temperatures, usually for the convenience of movement, it is additionally covered with wooden shields. From the bottom, so that the surface of the latter is placed horizontally, bars of different thickness are filled. Like the flowing wooden floors, these boards from time to time dried.
Clay floor in the bath
Clay version of the coating is also an interesting floor device. In a bath with such a finish, it is pleasant to walk, since this material has a very low degree of thermal conductivity. In this case, instead of the concrete solution, a clay mixture is simply used. However, such sexes have one significant drawback. When wet, the clay swells noticeably. After drying, it takes its original dimensions, greatly cracking at the same time. Subsequently, water begins to stagnate in the cracks. As a result, an unpleasant smell appears in the bath.
This is the way the floor device is constructed. In a bath with any of these options for a walk, it's nice to go and bathe only if there is a so-called water seal. Without it, cold and badly smelling air from the receiving pipe can enter the room. The hydraulic seal can be made simply by placing a special plastic cup on the legs on the outgoing pipe in the tray. Entering the receiver, the water will lift it and go into the sink. Air in the bath from the pipe will not fall. The receiving tray should be closed with a grate. This will prevent the ingress of leaves from the brooms and other debris.
Insulated floor in the sauna
If you intend to use the sauna in the winter period, it is necessary to arrange insulated floors in it. In this case, first the rough floor is poured onto which the expanded clay is poured or styrofoam is laid. In the middle, the receiving trough is held. Further on logs of different heights the finishing floor is stuffed. It should be with a slope of the boards from the walls to the groove. Before filling the claydite, the rough floor is pierced with a vapor barrier. On top of the heater, the waterproofing is laid. The cracks between the boards of the finishing floor are sealed. Claydite for insulation will be suitable only mixed - at least from two fractions of different sizes.
Insulation on screed
Thus, how to make a drain in the bath and what should be the floors at the same time, we found out. Now let's look at how to properly make a concrete foundation under cover. Before filling it, the soil is carefully rammed, making a slight bias toward the receiver-tray. After that, a layer of crushed stone is poured on it about 10-15 cm. The foundation is protected by laying a layer of clay around it. Then everything is poured with concrete. If desired, the floor can be warmed at this stage. In this case, a thin screed is poured over the rubble. She poured a layer of expanded clay. Then the main concrete floor is poured. This layer must be reinforced. The easiest way is to use the usual grid for the purpose. After pouring the concrete surface should be as carefully as possible level with the help of the board.
How to prepare a concrete mortar
Of course, the concrete floor of the bath must be as reliable as possible. Therefore, the solution should be prepared strictly adhering to the laid technology. Sand should be taken large and necessarily sifted. Cement for the device of a concrete bath floor is used only the highest grades. The best is the M400.Knees are made in a 1: 3 ratio. Mix the ingredients as carefully as possible. It is best to do this with the use of special equipment. It is very difficult to prepare a manual homogeneous composition. The presence of unmixed parts significantly weakens the flooded structure.
Shower in the bath
Shower in the sauna is quite rare. The simplest version of it is a conventional bucket suspended above the entrance to the steam room. However, you can use other, simple constructively, but somewhat more "advanced" options. After all, contrasting water procedures are actually very useful. You can, for example, install the tank on the ceiling and put a branch pipe into the bath from the ceiling. Next, a conventional watering can be connected to it. Water can be pumped into the tank by a pump from the well through a hose. Shower draining in this case can be arranged on the same principle as the main bath. Most often used water simply leaves the bath through a common receiver.
Diagrams of the bath
The drain is not the only feature of such an unusual building as a bath. It will be convenient only in case of proper planning of the location of its premises. So finally, let's consider what the bath scheme should be. There are many options for the location of the steam room, washing room and locker room. If you want, you can develop your own project. However, it is worth observing some basic rules:
- The furnace is best placed in the middle of the building, so that there is a possibility of heating not only the steam room and washing room, but also the changing rooms. Otherwise, to dress in the winter after visiting the bath will be cold. If the building is large, it is worth setting up two ovens.
- Even in a very small bath it is desirable to equip a tambour with an area of at least a square meter. If the front door is too close to the street, in the winter it will begin to freeze to the frame due to condensation.
- If in the bathhouse in the future it is supposed to arrange gatherings with beer, it is necessary to allocate a little space for a toilet.
Dimensions of baths
The bath scheme, of course, should include information such as the size of its premises. Making up the project, it is necessary to take into account the minimum allowable area per person:
- For the locker room - 2-4 m2.
- For washing - 2.7 m2.
- For the steam room - 2-3 m2.
Being guided by these figures and knowing how many people will wash at the same time, the necessary area of the building will be easy to calculate.
How to rationally arrange rooms
Most often in the tambour arrange two entrances: one in the washroom, behind which is the steam room, the second - in the locker room. This is really the most convenient scheme. In small bathhouses, the vestibule usually serves as a dressing room. To finally decide on what the building should be, you can view the various blueprints of the bath. One of them is presented to your attention on this page a little higher. And this is how saunas are built in Europe:
Thus, having properly laid out the layout, having arranged a good drain, and also having performed all the other works with strict observance of the put technologies, it is possible to build a comfortable and durable sauna on the countryside. If you build something yourself, there is no special desire, you can order a construction company such a service as a turnkey bath. In this case, our recommendations will help you control the work of the hired brigade.