The question of how to make a device for measuring air humidity, interested physicists from time immemorial. In due time such a problem was also of concern to the weather forecasters. Today, even for ordinary people, it is equally important to have information about the level of humidity inside the premises where one has to live, work and just spend a lot of time.
How does humidity affect how you feel?
The body of an adult, a formed person, is almost 70% water, and the body of a small child is even larger, about 90%.According to experts, within a day a person should consume at least 2 liters of ordinary water, which helps maintain the basic processes of the functioning of the body.
Prolonged exposure to an arid environment results in a loss of skin moisture and, as a result, rapid aging. Human lungs release air, the humidity of which is about 100%.If the air is too inhaled too much, its moisture in the body is due to internal fluids. Prolonged exposure to such conditions necessarily causes
Apparatus for measuring air humidity
There are a number of specialized and improvised instruments for measuring the humidity level in rooms. Among the most common special apparatus should be distinguished psychrometers and hygrometers. These devices serve a single purpose, but at the heart of their work are fundamentally different from each other principles.
If we talk about improvised methods of measuring humidity, we can note here the possibility of using a conventional glass with water or a standard thermometer, as will be discussed in more detail below.
Hygrometer is a device for measuring air humidity, the principle of operation of which allows to reveal how the change in moisture index is reflected on separate bodies and matter. As a striking example, we can mention the hair hygrometer, where the defatted human hair serves as a measure for measuring. Changing its own length, based on changes in humidity, hair allows you to obtain data on the required index in the range of 30 to 100%.
A hygrometer of the film type also became widespread. Such a device for measuring air humidity contains an element extremely sensitive to the moisture level in the form of an organic film. There is also a number of other, more accurate hygrometers. However, their use in a domestic environment can be too expensive a pleasure.
A psychrometric method for calculating moisture values was widely used in everyday life. If the hygrometric instrument for measuring air humidity usually shows deviations in the indices at the level of about 5% in both directions, then in the case of psychrometers such errors are absent.
The simplest psychrometers have two sensors - dry and wet. While the evaporation of water leads to the cooling of the wet sensor, the dry element of the psychrometer captures changes in the temperature of the surrounding space. The result of measurements based on this principle is the formation of the necessary indicators in a special microprocessor device.
Thus, it is easy to understand that a psychrometer is a device for determining the humidity of air, where the main role is played by recording the indices of the temperature difference on dry and wet sensors.
Measurement of air humidity without the use of
equipment There is a fairly simple method by which you can obtain fairly objective data on the humidity level in the room. And for this it is enough just for the presence of a usual glass glass with water.
To measure the humidity, it is necessary to fill the glass with cold water, and then place the container for several hours in the refrigerator until the water cools down to a temperature of about 5 ° C.Putting the glass in a room in which you need to know the moisture level, you should observe the surface of the glass, paying attention to the following:
- if the walls of the glass are initially misty, then quickly dried for a few minutes, in which case the air in the room is dry;
- preservation of the effect of fogging the walls after 5-10 minutes after the beginning of observations indicates the average humidity of the air;
- the appearance of flowing brooks on the walls of the glass indicates a high humidity.
Measurement of humidity with thermometer
Sufficiently effective device for measuring air humidity - a conventional thermometer. Using a thermometer for this purpose is a kind of copying of the principle of psychrometers.
To begin with, using a standard mercury thermometer, the room temperature is fixed, and then its head is tightly wrapped with wet gauze or a piece of wet wool. After 10 minutes, new temperature values are noted.
To find the humidity in percent, from the temperature data on the thermometer in the "dry" state the temperature of the "wet" thermometer is subtracted.
Maintaining a balance of humidity in practice
Theoretical knowledge about measuring humidity in the middle of the rooms is important. However, for those who are faced with the need to maintain a "healthy" balance of dryness and humidity of airspace, it still requires practice.
In order to control the humidity conditions in your own home, it is enough to purchase an efficient device for measuring the humidity in the room. Now this task is not a problem. The most popular in recent years are electronic devices for calculating humidity with external and internal sensors. An external sensor is placed outside the window, while the housing of the device remains inside. This allows you to obtain objective data about the moisture indices both indoors and outdoors.
If desired, you can spend money on buying a psychrometer or hygrometer. However, one can not call such an option too economical. The cost of a device here will largely depend on the accuracy of the indicators and the available measurement ranges.
As a result, the most effective can be the purchase of a special air humidifier, which, in addition to its main task, is able to record the necessary indices in the room.