The tradition of lovers of summer recreation has long included the preparation of food on hot coals. To cook dishes on the coals used a variety of designs, the most popular of which are BBQ, barbecue and grill. In addition, today a growing popularity is gaining an unusual for the European view and understanding device - a Central Asian oven called "tandyr".
The peoples of Central Asia( especially the inhabitants of Uzbekistan) cook many dishes in tandoor: Uzbek cakes, shish kebab, meat called tandyr-gusht( meat from tandoor), poultry and Uzbek pies made of puff pastry called samsa. The taste of food cooked in tandoor is unforgettable. That is why many Russians want to build a tandoor at the dacha with their own hands.
Before designing and constructing this structure, it is necessary to carefully study the tandyr device. With my own hands without experience and understanding of how this furnace works, it will be very difficult to build it.
Tandoor is a hollow clay jug tapering
Principle of operation of the traditional Uzbek tandyr
When coal burns, the tandyr walls are heated to a temperature of 250 ° C to 400 ° C.The high temperature in such a furnace can last up to 6 hours, due to the good thermal insulation properties of the clay. All the time, while the oven keeps a high temperature, you can cook any food. Food is prepared by heat transfer inside the tandoor. Thanks to the even temperature, the dishes are cooked evenly and very qualitatively.
Only after studying this information can you go to the search for an answer to the question of how to build a tandoor with your own hands in a country house.
Classification of types of tandyr
According to the form of tandyr there are:
Also divide by the scope of application:
- .From the inside, a ditch is to be laid with clay bricks of a width of 30 cm. A tandoor is used to make lamb or poultry meat.
- Ground Tandoor. This kind is built of clay with the addition of wool. This kind of oven serves primarily as a tandoor for flat cakes. It is much easier to build it with your own hands than a pit.
Methods of constructing
In accordance with traditional Central Asian technology, tandyr is not built by oneself, but molded from kaolin clay of Akhangaran origin. Akhangaran is a small city in Uzbekistan, which since ancient times was famous for its soil. In order to protect the furnace from the appearance of cracks from the inside under the influence of high temperature, it is necessary to add a small amount of camel or sheep's wool to the kaolin clay. To build a classic Uzbek tandoor from clay with your own hands, you need patience and sufficient skill. The thing is that the eastern clay masters do not disclose the exact composition of the clay, so when constructing such an unusual furnace it will be necessary to experiment and do a lot by eye.
Approximate technology of construction of
As it was said earlier, each master has his own secret of building a tandyr, which remains secret and is passed only to family members. That is why the question of how to make a tandoor with one's own hands does not have an exact answer. But the approximate technology of modeling the furnace looks like this:
- Kaolin clay is mixed with wool, cut into thin fibers 10-15 mm in length. A mixture of clay and wool should be viscous, similar to sour cream.
- A mixture made to build a tandoor oven by one's own hands should stand for a week in a dark place. This is done to ensure that the clay composition is evenly dried. The whole week is necessary to follow the mixture. If water accumulates from above, it is better to drain it and mix the mixture without water. But it must also be taken into account the fact that the less water in the mixture, the greater the likelihood that the tandyr will soon be covered with cracks.
- A week after settling the mixture, it is possible to begin to mold small sheets with a thickness of 5 to 15 cm from the resulting clay plasticine. The tandyr is formed from them. The classical dimensions of such a furnace have long been known: the height is 1-1.5 m, the diameter to the narrowed part is 1 m, the hole diameter is 50-60 cm.
- The cake should be allowed to dry for a minimum of several weeks.
- After complete drying, it is necessary to overlay the clay walls with brick. A solution for fixing bricks is kaolin clay. Between the walls of the tandoor and the layer of bricks it is necessary to pour sand, clay or salt.
- The inside of the device for cooking delicious dishes should be carefully coated with cotton oil.
- After that, you can start burning tandyr. The firing temperature rises gradually and very slowly. The entire firing process can last up to two days. Such a slow flow of the process is due to the fact that during rapid firing of clay, cracks may appear on it.
A simplified way to build a tandyr
Many of those who already know how to build tandyr with their own hands admit that without experience and skills it is very difficult to build it. As a result, it turns out to be uneven, and starts to crack when firing. That is why craftsmen created a simplified version of such a miracle oven. Simplified it is called because it is formed around a wooden barrel, which allows you to keep its even shape.
To build a simplified tandyr with your own hands, the drawings of which can be found if desired( they are freely available), the following materials will be needed: kaolin, chamotte sand, wool, wooden barrel with metal hoops and vegetable oil.
The barrel must be filled with water and left for a few days, so that the wood is soaked and swelled. Next, the clay should be mixed with sand and wool in the following proportion: 1 unit of clay 2 units of sand and 0.05 wool. The mixture must be allowed to settle for several days. After that, water is drained from the barrel, and a thick layer of vegetable oil is applied to its inner surface.
After the clay mixture has settled, it can be applied to the inside of the barrel with a thick layer( 5-7 cm).When the barrel is completely covered with clay, you need to leave the tandoor in a dry place in the shade so that it will dry out for up to one month. In the process of drying, wooden rivets begin to depart from the barrel. When they go completely, you can remove the metal hoops and release the ready tandyr from the barrel.
Installation of the furnace is carried out on a thick layer of sand. After this procedure, you need to hold one more - roasting. For this, a weak fire is fired inside the tandoor, which should burn for about 6 hours. After this time, the oven is covered with a lid and a strong fire is switched on. That's it, you can brag to your friends that you made a simplified tandoor yourself. They will surely be happy to try the dishes cooked in your new miracle oven!
We make tandoor of brick by our own hands
As mentioned above, the Central Asian oven made by newcomers will very quickly crack and lose its original shape. It is for this purpose that everyone who wants to have this unique thing is offered an easier way - to build a tandyr with his own hands made of bricks.
This will require the following materials:
- refractory bricks;
- furnace mixture for masonry bricks;
- kaolin clay;
- sand, concrete and reinforcing mesh for foundation construction;
- template frame made of wood.
For the construction of a brick tandyr foundation it is necessary to excavate a round pit with a diameter slightly larger than the future product. A pillow made of sand 10-20 cm thick is prepared at the bottom of the pit. A metal grid of wire and reinforcement is laid on the sand cushion. Then the concrete is poured into it. It is necessary to make sure that the concrete layer is flat and horizontal. After pouring concrete, you need to wait a week, so that he grabs the surface and finds strength.
A week later, you can begin laying a brick, which is made around a circle of the previously defined diameter of the tandoor. Usually the diameter of the tandoor is 1 m. Bricks are installed on the butt, on the basis of the wooden frame-pattern, the circle of the future tandyr is formed. Further laying of the brick is carried out using a solution prepared on the basis of a refractory mixture( it consists of quartz sand, kaolite clay and plasticizers).Such a solution has a high level of refractoriness, and it is also plastic and does not crack when fired. In the lower part of the tandoor it is necessary to leave a hole for the ashtray. As an ashtray, you can use a conventional chimney.
After laying bricks tandyr should be coated with a 5-cm layer of kaolite clay on the inner and outer sides. To make the stove look aesthetic, you can make it with colored stones on the outside.
After this, the brick tandyr is fired. For this, inside you need to kindle a fire and gradually add the temperature to 400 ° C.
Based on these recommendations and step-by-step instructions, you can easily make a quality tandyr with your own hands made of bricks.
From the plastic drums
For the construction of this variety of tandyr you will need a plastic barrel of the usual form. As in the case of building a product based on a wooden barrel, the plastic vessel must be filled with water, so that the barrel increases in size. Then, the chamotte solution is applied to its outer side, compacted and smoothed. The tamping and smoothing operation is recommended until a clear contour of the tandyr is formed. Next, you need to let the creation dry for a few weeks. When the drying process is completed, the water is drained from the barrel, and the barrel itself is extracted from the clay mold.
Yamdnaya( earth) tandyr oven
Above, we described different technologies and options with which you can build a tandoor by yourself. Another very interesting version of the Uzbek kiln is the so-called pit, or earth tandyr, which is built in a pit excavated specially for this purpose.
The technology of construction is as follows:
- To begin with, it is necessary to excavate a pit in the ground and to carry to it a pipe through which the air necessary for supporting the fire will flow into the tandoor itself.
- One row of bricks is laid on the bottom of the pit, the seams of which are filled with kaolite clay. After this, a trumpet at an angle of 45 ° is placed in the trench. The pipe should be installed so that its lower edge is 5 cm from the brickwork.
- Walls are constructed of brickwork. The bricks must be laid so that the internal diameter of the tandyr is 50 cm, and the depth of it is not less than three rows of brickwork. Seams formed during the laying of bricks should also be filled with kaolite clay.
- The top row of brickwork should be coated with a layer of clay. Clay composition is recommended to be applied using reinforced mesh.
- Next, a dome of the tandoor is built, which should be at least 2 cm thick. For this, the pelvis is taken. For the strength of the structure, it is necessary to conduct the reinforcement with a grid. After this, it must be coated with clay and allowed to dry thoroughly. When the clay dried, the dome is removed and placed on the pit.
- The joints formed when joining the dome and bricks are covered with kaolite clay.
- Now you need to make a hatch for the pipe to cover the air during the furnace heating. At the end around the dome you need to fill a mixture of expanded clay and cement mortar.
Following this technology will allow us to build an earth tandoor with our own hands. You can see a photo of such a product in the article. Before construction, you should carefully study what the earthy Uzbek kiln looks like.
Dishes that can be prepared by
Once the tandoor has been successfully completed, one can think about dishes that are prepared in tandoor. In the ground types of the oven, Uzbek cakes and pies made of lamb and potatoes under the name "Samsa" are mainly made.
Traditional pitched Uzbek dishes are made in pit tandyr, such as:
- tandyr-gusht( lamb meat, languishing in the underground tandoor for about three days);
- chicken fillet;
- shish kebabs;
- some varieties of Uzbek pilaf;
- lamb leg;
- sausages in tandoor;
- pork loin in tandoor;
- classic lub-kebab.
In addition, after the construction of tandyr lovers of culinary delights are given scope for the manifestation of fantasy. Just remember that in such an oven you can cook absolutely all vegetables and types of meat, as well as some dough products. And large pieces of meat can be successfully cooked only in such a device. Everything depends only on how skillful the person who cooks in this wonderful Uzbek oven, which appeared in ancient times and is used up to now.
Additional accessories needed for preparing
dishes Some preparations may be needed in tandoor for cooking certain types of dishes. For example:
- a round-shaped suspension with a hook for maintaining meat;
- slots for holding the round suspension;
- metal frame attached to the suspension( it is needed in order to tandyr convenient to cling bowls).
These accessories will help to prepare tasty and high-quality food in the eastern oven.
Usage in different countries
Tandoor is used in many countries of the East, however, the Uzbek tandyr is considered to be canonical. Other states also have curious facts related to the use of this furnace.
So, in Azerbaijan only earth tandyr is popular. Previously, it not only prepared various dishes, but also heated the living quarters in the cold season.
In India, the tandoor is called tandoor. The design itself is used to make only meat dishes. The most popular dish of Indian cuisine, cooked in tandoor, is a chicken tandoori.
In Central Asia, both conventional tandyr and earthen are used in the same amount. In each kind of cooking different dishes.
In the Caucasus countries, as well as in Iran, the tandoor is used as a stove for cooking traditional lavash.
The above are a few of the most popular ways to build such a device yourself. The ways and variants of the methods presented in the article most fully answer the question of how to make a tandoor by oneself. Of course, there are more sophisticated options, but they are made only in some villages of Central Asia, and the design and materials are kept in the strictest secrecy from all strangers.