Milk and sour-milk products are sold every day through food stores. Sometimes it happens that when buying dairy products from different manufacturers, obviously there is a difference in taste, although the percentage of fatness is the same, and the inscription on the package indicates that it is normalized. What milk means is "normalized", and how it differs from other types of this product, it is worth investigating in order to understand the difference.
Why is milk processed
Hardly anyone will dispute the benefits of milk for the human body, especially the child. This product is abundantly sold both in the markets of private traders, and on the shelves of shops - from stalls to supermarkets.
To understand what normalized milk means, whole, pasteurized, reconstituted or drinking is better before the product is purchased and tested.
The difference between these products is the way they are processed, enriched and normalized. The general concept of "milk" is not inherent in all types of
Any milk, even bought from a private trader, must undergo thermal treatment in order to protect it from possible viruses and unwanted microorganisms.
In the dairy industry, heat treatment is carried out for other purposes - to extend the shelf life of this product on store shelves. It depends on the degree and method of heating and its name depends.
Normalized milk - what is it, no matter how natural the product, which led to the corresponding GOSTs special treatment? It is made from whole milk, which means that it is free of chemical impurities and additives.
As the dairies are taken from various farms, where each cow has its own fat content, milk yield, saturation and taste, it is diluted, bringing it up to the norms that correspond to the concept of "drinking milk".
Normalized and whole milk is characterized by its fat content. In whole, its percentage is from 2.8 to 8%, and normalized milk is led by breeding to the rates accepted by GOSTs, 2.0-2.5%.
Each manufacturer has the main goal - that its product has a demand, and the optimal shelf life allowed it to be implemented on time. In order not to incur losses in the production of this perishable product, unscrupulous manufacturers claim that their sterilized or reconstituted product is normalized milk, which is a natural drink that is not actually that.
Difference in the processing of dairy products
Normalized milk is produced in several ways:
- Cow milk of different fat content is drained into the separator and completely degreased, after which fat is added to the corresponding norm.
- Whole milk is either removed by excess fat, or cream is added if the fat content is below the GOST.
Therefore, when the package says "Milk from normalized milk," this means that the whole product is brought to normal by dilution.
manufacturers Some manufacturers try to present reconstituted milk as normalized. On the composition of fat content, it may, and has the norms corresponding to GOSTs, but it is not made from whole milk, but made from powdered milk. For its production is taken milk powder, formed by spray drying, diluted with water and aged for up to 4 hours at a maximum temperature of plus 6 degrees. During this time, the components are dissolved, after which the product is processed pasteurization, homogenization, cooled and bottled.
Although milk powder is made from whole milk, after numerous treatments of useful properties it does not remain.
Now the concept of "normalized milk" is revealed, what is it and its difference from other types of dairy products. The next stage of processing is the exposure of the product to high temperatures. Heat treatment of milk
To disinfect and increase the shelf life of milk, it is subjected to heat treatment of varying degrees of complexity. Depending on the temperature, in the future this product is distributed to pasteurized, sterilized, ultra-pasteurized and melted milk. Normalized milk, which it would mean in the opinion of the producers, has its own degree of naturalness and safety, stipulated by GOSTs.
Thermalization and sterilization
Thermalization means the heating of raw materials to a temperature of 60-68 degrees for 30 seconds, which does not affect the chemical and alkaline balance of the product, but is detrimental to possible bacteria.
Sterilization is the heating of raw milk above 100 degrees, and the heating process itself can be carried out in two ways:
- The heat treatment is carried out in one step, in which the milk heated to 75 degrees is released from the air, and then sharply for 1 second heats up to 140-150 and cooled. After cooling, the product is homogenized and bottled in sterile soft bags for milk.
- Two-stage sterilization means warming up the raw material to 140-150 degrees for 5 seconds, then cooling and bottling with sealed caps. The second stage is the sterilization of bottles with the product in the autoclave at a temperature of 120 degrees for 20 minutes.
So, we figured out what sterilization means and the milk is normalized. That this incompatible thing also becomes understandable, since with such a high heat treatment the resistance of the product grows to 2 months, and the useful substances disappear.
Pasteurization and heating of milk
Pasteurization is called gentle heat treatment when the heating temperature is not brought to the boiling point. In this case, in the microbiological sense, milk is disinfected, and its useful properties are preserved. This is because pathogens die at a lower temperature than dairy microorganisms. The shelf life of this product depends on the packaging and can range from 36 hours to 3-5 days. Normalized milk, GOST confirms this past pasteurization process, has excellent drinking qualities and has a fat content corresponding to the table of quality parameters.
Milk heating is also a heat treatment, but of a different property. In this case, the raw materials are "tamed" for 3 hours at a temperature of 85 to 99 degrees or 15 minutes at 105 degrees. The number of useful properties is somewhat reduced, but the milk acquires a pleasant taste and a beautiful cream color.
As can be seen from the above, milk is normalized( which it is now known) has every chance to become a frequent guest on the tables of customers of stores.
Products from milk
It is known that not only milk itself, but also all lactic-acidic products from it are useful. For people who sit on diets, the producers reacted by the production of skim milk, which seems to have useful properties, but is completely cleansed of fats. Its fat content is up to 0.05%.How useful this product is, it is still worth checking, but the difference in caloric value is significant. At the same time, if you compare the amount of trace elements, it will be almost the same, since vitamins A, D, magnesium and other elements are added to skim milk.
If in a family where parents are predisposed to obesity, a child was born, then in the absence of natural feeding, the baby can begin to give skimmed milk from the second month. The habit of using this particular product will help him avoid weight problems in the future.
Often on dairy products you can see the inscription "Made from normalized milk", which means that the product is made from either whole milk, artificially lowered fat, or milk powder diluted to the desired state.
Therefore, you should carefully read what manufacturers write in fine print. There should be indicated whether whole milk or reconstituted was used.
It's sad, but dairy products did not escape the falsification of counterfeiters. It turns out that it's easy to do it without breaking the law. Each manufacturer must specify the composition of milk or derivatives thereof. They do it, not being afraid of being caught for products of obviously low quality at the price of natural milk. For example, indicating the composition of vegetable oil, and using palm oil, which is poorly absorbed by the human body, the manufacturer legally does not lie.
Therefore, when the composition of ice cream indicates vegetable fats, there is no milk in such a product, and this is a pure forgery. According to GOSTs, ice cream, which includes the replacement of dairy fats with vegetable oils, should inform consumers on the label and be called vegetable-creamy.
Other sour-milk products, like cottage cheese, are subjected to the same "attacks" of counterfeiters. In its composition began to introduce vegetable fats, as a rule, cheap palm oil. Under the law, the company is obliged to indicate this not only in the composition, but also on the label. Such cottage cheese must have the name "Cottage cheese product".Producers do not violate anything, but point this out in such places and so finely that without a magnifying glass you can not read.
Therefore, before putting dairy products in a basket, it is better to spend a few minutes searching for information with the words "Manufactured from. ..".