In any production that involves the manufacture of something, you can not do without measurements. Regardless of whether you require this GOST or you create a new product, but you still have to measure it. We will now talk about how and what to measure correctly. Dropping specialized geodetic tools without going back to antiquity to a string with knots and a notch with nicks, and also not looking into the future with laser rangefinders, we will discuss simple, convenient, most frequently used measuring instruments.
Purpose and types
Speaking of their purpose, the measuring instruments are classified according to their application in:
A separate measuring group can be identified as a universal measuring instrument that can be used in all or several industries.
For varieties of instruments are divided as follows:
- plastic, metal, wooden, combined;
- manual and mechanical;
- simple and complex.
This separation into classe
Building measuring tools
- Measuring tape .Used to measure the linear dimensions of length, width, height. It is a body made of a solid material( plastic, metal), inside which is a metal or polymer tape. They are produced with different width and length, but with the same scale, the price of divisions of which is 1 mm. Roulettes come with a manual or mechanical( spring) reeling principle.
- Water level. Used for horizontal height marking. It consists of a flexible polymer tube( length from 5 to 30 m) and two measuring flasks at the ends. Works on the principle of communicating vessels.
- Level( level). It is necessary for determining both horizontal and vertical parameters of structures. It is made of various materials( wood, plastic, aluminum).The length is from 30 cm to 2.5 m. In general, there are three windows with glass tubes. The tubes are not completely filled with antifreeze liquid. The principle of operation is vertical air lift.
- Plumbing .Used to set vertical values for installation and construction. Has a simple design from a cord on which a cone load is suspended. Sometimes, in strong winds, to compensate for lateral oscillations, the cargo is placed in a container with water.
- Squared .It is made of wood or metal. It has a length of each side up to 1 m. It is indispensable in the construction of buildings to check the right angles.
- Malka .Like a square, it can be metal or wooden. The difference is that the two wings( the clip and the ruler) are hinged. It is mainly used for the erection of roofs for the installation of rafters. After setting the desired angle, fix the wing nut and check the structure.
Joiner's measuring tools
Given the contiguity of some professions and the versatility of the measuring instrument, we separately single out only a meter and a triangle. Roulette - this is generally a universal tool, but we have already spoken about the yoke and the small stick. They with a smaller length of sides( up to 50 cm) are widely used by carpenters. Also calipers are used, for example, for selecting drills or checking the diameter of holes, but we'll talk about it later.
- Meter .The main material is wood and stainless steel. The plastic version was also produced, but because of its fragility, it was not widely used. The name speaks for itself - meter, the price of division is 1 mm. Its main difference from the meter line is that it consists of separate sections that fold and unfold when necessary.
- Triangle .Everyone from school remembers this instrument and the magnitude of its angles - 90, 60, 45 degrees. That is why it is widely used by all carpenters. Usually, the square has a bevel at 45 degrees, but, firstly, not everyone, and secondly, the dimensions do not always allow it to be used. This is where the triangle comes in handy. The main material is plastic, as well as wood or metal.
Locksmith measuring tools
Given the specifics, scope, as well as the conditions when the dimensions range from 0.1 mm to 0.005 mm, we can say that the metalwork is the most accurate measuring tool. And it's not just about accuracy. The work itself requires attentiveness, and a metalwork measuring tool - knowledge and experience. Often, the same device serves to measure different parameters.
Let's look at the indispensable assistant - calliper .Its upper lips serve to remove the internal dimensions of the parts, and the lower ones to measure the external parameters. In addition, the caliper has a depth gauge on the movable frame. But that's not all. On the main bar there is a scale for counting the whole millimeters( division price - 0.5 mm), and in the frame cutout - the Nonius scale for counting fractions of millimeters( division price 0.02 mm.).There is also a fixing screw, which clamps the frame on the rod.
The measuring line is a polished steel strip 20-30 cm long with 1 mm divisions. Use it for linear measurements that do not require high accuracy.
For more accurate measurement, as well as measuring angles, measuring instruments such as micrometer and goniometer are used. They also have two scales - the main scale and the vernier. Often used calipers and caliper for measuring the external and internal dimensions of parts, respectively.
In the arsenal of the specialist there is a variety of instrumentation:
- testing rulers of different configurations( two-sided, three and four-sided);
- corner and reference tiles;
- measuring indicator;
- different probes.
If we take into account the materials from which the measuring instruments are made, it becomes clear that under the same conditions they can not be stored. If plastic and plastic tools are less susceptible to moisture, wood, and especially metal ones, are afraid of water ingress. In this regard, they should be stored in a dry ventilated room. In addition, the wooden tool must be protected from direct sunlight to prevent it from drying out. The exact tool is best stored in protective leather covers, and some appliances - and in solid wooden or plastic boxes.
Operation of the measuring tool
First of all, the measuring tool with which you work should be serviceable, clean, free of rust or oxidation. Do not allow any mechanical impact( impacts, pressure, bends).Try to avoid falling tool, getting water on it. Read the instructions before use if any is available. Skillful correct handling of the measuring instrument is a guarantee of quality work performed.