Measuring device. Optical, mechanical, electronic devices

A measuring device is a device that is capable of displaying a physical quantity in a certain range. Its standard design, as a rule, includes a converter that is engaged in changing the information received. All this is necessary in order for a person to have an idea of ​​the investigated magnitude.

The data can be obtained in a variety of ways. If we talk about digital models, then the investigated value can be displayed on the display via a personal computer. At this time, the mechanical measuring instruments have a scale along with an arrow.

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What kinds are there?

First of all, the instruments for measurement are classified by the method of determining the value. To date, there are only two types: comparative, as well as direct action devices. The first option involves comparing two quantities. In this case, one of them is known and is taken as a basis. Direct-acting instruments measure the value directly during the counting process. According to the degree of indication, measuring instr

uments are also divided into two types.

The first type is called registering. Its peculiarity is that it is able to fix the result. As a result, the researcher has the opportunity to eventually display the data in the form of a diagram or graph. The second type is called showing. Devices of this type are not able to fix the final values, but only display the real value. Thus, the researcher does not have the opportunity to compare the data after the work.

Instrumentation and control equipment

Instrumentation and automation in our time are strongly connected. It should be noted that these devices are designed to read the testimony. Data can be output in completely different ways. The most common are models with an ordinary scale. In addition, they have an arrow. As is known, a scale is called a scale system. In this case, numerical values ​​are displayed on it. With their help, the researcher can observe the changes in magnitude.

The main characteristics of scales are considered to be the length of division, the range of readings, as well as the limits of measurements. In this case they are one-sided or two-sided. In addition, there are instrumentation with a symmetrical scale. These devices can be very easily identified because they have zero zero in the center. Instruments for measuring with a zero scale do not have such properties.

Measuring instrumentation

The operating instrumentation is a separate subset of the metering devices by metrological criteria. They are used most often in various technical works. In this case, the devices are distinguished in that they can be operated under different conditions.

First and foremost, this is, of course, laboratory instruments. With their help, scientists conduct research. In production, this type of instrument is also often found. There they are responsible for monitoring all ongoing processes and monitor various technological indicators to achieve high quality products. Thus, we can say that working instrumentation and automation are highly dependent on each other.

In the field, this equipment is certainly used. Most often it is used for the successful operation of cars and other vehicles. Among other things, experts use it before taking off the aircraft to determine their condition. In addition, it should be understood that, according to the characteristics, the working instruments for measuring quite different from each other. This is primarily due to the conditions in which they are exploited. Thus, the accuracy of measurements is very important for a laboratory technician. At the same time, it does not matter which model is capable of withstanding vibration or temperature.

At this time in production, as a rule, very difficult working conditions. In this case, the housing of the measuring device may be damaged due to impact. Taking this into account, models of this class are produced more durable. Field instruments for measurements are considered universal. They must withstand vibration, and also operate at different temperatures. Also, experts assess their resistance to a high level of humidity. Not the least role, of course, is the accuracy of measuring instruments, but not so much as in the case of laboratory research.

accuracy of measuring instruments

Optical Devices

An optical measuring device is a special device that can do angular measurements. Most often it is used in various areas where precise processing of parts is required. These devices are divided according to the type of optical system. In this case, the accuracy of the instruments is determined by a special scheme.

A bright representative of optical models for measurements are microscopes. These systems of measuring instruments allow scientists to study various details. The process is carried out along rectangular, as well as polar coordinates taking into account the common angle. Also they are used for measuring templates of complex shapes.

measuring instruments and tools

Characteristics of optical models

An important characteristic of all optical instruments for measurement are the limits of magnitude. In this case, they are evaluated both in the longitudinal and transverse directions. In this case, the division price can be determined by two parameters.

First of all, the boundary of the reading device is taken into account, and it is measured in millimeters. In the second case, the number of scales of the angular head is taken into account. Among other things, an important increase in the lens can be attributed to important characteristics. The accuracy of the measurements is also affected by the diameter of the field of view, which is measured in millimeters.

Mechanical measuring instruments for measuring

To date, there are many types of mechanical measuring instruments. The most common are non-scale devices. As a rule, they are a series of verification, as well as a local type. Their responsibility is to monitor various deviations from straightforwardness. The whole process takes place by means of a feeler gauge.

Sinus rulers have the ability to make indirect measurements. As a rule, they work only with outer corners up to 45 degrees. In this case, the error in them is quite appreciable, and this is an obvious minus. Verification of measuring devices is carried out only in specialized centers.

There are test leads to control various gaps on the insertion of blades. Verification angles are able to measure right angles to the lumen. For visual control of the surface, a separate subset of mechanical measuring instruments is provided, and it is called a roughness device.

Features of

Shank Instruments The majority of models of shale instruments are two surfaces between which an object can be placed. Still these details are called sponges. In this case, the upper surface is the base and connects to the ruler. At this time, the second sponge is able to move. The bottom line is that the ruler has a scale.

In this case, the limits of counts are different. Calipers are able to show the outer, as well as the internal size of the object. In this case, another device is provided for measuring the depths of the grooves. It is called a gauging-depth meter, which also has the ability to measure the heights of the projections. In general, measuring instruments and tools are additionally used for working with gear gears.

instrumentation and automation

Measuring heads of

instruments The measuring head is called a counting mechanism, which is installed in the instruments. The spring type models have a rather elastic element in the structure. In doing so, it is fully standardized. The spring itself is used flat with the torsion shaft.

Additionally, it can be called a microcrater. If we talk about optical models, then they use optics. At the same time, they are rather compact and belong to small measuring instruments. Lever-toothed heads are the most common type.

They are used, as a rule, in indicators of a watch type. At the same time, the lever can easily change their position. For relative measurements of external dimensions, multi-turn devices are used. At the same time, the linkage clamp is fixed by the counting mechanism. In addition, it should be noted that the lever-toothed heads are mounted in digital meters. There they work in pairs with string converters. They serve mainly for linear measurements.

Micrometer measuring tools

This kind of tools is not very common. The main element of these devices can be called a spindle. A distinctive feature of this part is the thread with a fairly accurate pitch. As a result, the spindle is capable of making axial movements.

As a result, the researcher gets the opportunity to count the full revolutions of the mechanism. Help him in this strokes, which are painted on a special stem. At the same time, the shares of turnover can be calculated from the radial marks. They are applied, as a rule, on the drum of the device. One step of the device can be different. The lowest figure is considered to be 0.5 mm, but there are models with a division of 1 mm. To calculate the zero value, the drum can be easily moved.

Thus, the device has the ability to easily configure. The spindle is able to change its position due to the spring-loaded ratchet. In some models, a friction clutch is installed instead. It can also be called a rattle. Taking into account all the above, this micrometer is able to perform a wide variety of tasks. As an example, it can be mounted on staples. As a result, he will be able to conduct their exact count.

Scheme of the mechanical meter

A simple kinematic scheme of the indicator transmission mechanism is a set of a tip, as well as a sleeve. In addition, there is a measuring rod. It is attached directly to the head in the device. The screw is connected to the rim. To display the data there is a dial along with a pointer.

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The more complex circuit of the meter looks different. First of all, the rod in it is stationary, the sidewalls are supported on the nuts. There is also a screw that is attached to the holder. The movable rod is connected to the end measures of length.

Thus, the bridge in the device is centered. The lever in the circuit has two arms. In this case, the stem in the body of the device is located vertically, and the spring is next to the tip of the indicator.

Electronic measuring instruments

First of all, the electronic measuring device is known for its high speed. In addition, it boasts a high sensitivity. At the same time, many models have a fairly wide frequency range, which, of course, gives great opportunities in research.

The above instruments are exclusively used for measuring electrical quantities. Typically, they are used to determine the voltage or current in the circuit. Also, measuring electrical devices allow to carry out work to determine the resistance.

instrumentation

Digital models

The most common electronic devices are considered to be digital measuring instruments. They are quite expensive, but they are easy to handle. A vivid example of this device are voltmeters and ammeters. They are able in a short time to calculate the exact voltage in the electrical circuit. An integral part of them can be called a converter.

Also in models can be used additionally magnetoelectric devices. Directly the measurement process in this situation is related to the divider. In this case, the amplifier passes the voltage through the device converter. Thus, the magnetoelectric device is able to make accurate measurements of the magnitude. Naturally, the error in them is present, but to date there are various filters that fight with fluctuations.

measuring device

Another example of a digital model can be considered an oscilloscope, which is actively used in the medical industry. This universal measuring device is able to monitor different signals. In this case, they can be periodic or not. If necessary, digital measuring devices( oscilloscopes) are connected to personal computers.

As a result, the frequency can be monitored from the display. It also opens the possibility of fixing the signal readings. As a result, all data can be analyzed after research. These measuring instruments( market prices) stand on average around 20 thousand rubles.