At present, a considerable number of houses without central heating can be found. This problem will help solve the oven "Dutch".It's quite easy to make it with your own hands. The main thing in this business is compliance with all technical requirements. This will be discussed later.
Difference of "Dutch" from other types of furnaces
There are a lot of interesting facts in this direction. The main characteristic difference of the "Dutch" from other types of furnaces is that its design has a furnace chamber. This is an important fact. Specialists also note a fairly simple and simultaneously thought-out design. It ensures uniform and qualitative heating of the entire working volume of this device. The presence of a significant cubic capacity of the aforementioned chamber is an essential element. This ensures a gradual heating of the entire room in which this furnace is located. The maximum temperature level at the same time on the brick outer lining of the device is set at around 60-70 ° C.
Among other things, as noted by experts in this field, this type of heating products is fully an ecological variation of housing heating using "clean" fuel. Possessing an excellent reasoning and expediency of design, efficiency, high degree of fire safety and many other equally important properties, the Dutch oven is a reliable and qualitative device. This product has an average warranty period of at least 25 years. Pros and cons of this device will be discussed further.
The main advantage of this type of furnace implies the flexibility of its design. It allows you to lay out the hob, install the oven, and also install the boiler for the heating system of the building. This will require a small amount of the necessary material, in comparison with other types of furnaces having similar power and functionality. To ensure effective heating, it will not be necessary to conduct complex calculations, and also to select special building materials. Since the created oven "Dutch" with their own hands gives the room the maximum amount of heat, and a special pipe withdraws the remaining gases. Special attention should be paid only to the construction of the furnace compartment, and its laying should be carried out from a refractory quality brick. Having thin walls and passages in the chimney, this furnace does not need constant heating and high fuel consumption. This is an important property. At the same time, this device is capable of heating quite large areas( up to 50 m²).
Description of the deficiencies
In this case, the disadvantage is the presence of a small efficiency. Its value for a different design of the specified device can not exceed 40%.However, in comparison with other furnace devices this is a fairly good indicator. Having an unclosed view on the pipe, after burning the fuel, the Dutch oven will cool down quickly. As a result, in this case there is a certain condition. It consists in the fact that it will not be possible to heat fuel, which quickly burns. This is due to the fact that the draft will dissipate all heat in the system.
This is due to the fact that the greatest efficiency is achieved through slow combustion and subsequent decay. If fueled with cheap fuel with ash, then a lot of soot settles on the chimney, and the traction is lost.
In this case, nothing is complicated. The configuration of the base can be chosen almost any. It can be round, rectangular or oval in shape. For small wall designs it is necessary to erect one brick, and in two - for massive furnaces, which are intended for heating large cottages. This thickness contributes to a minimum fuel consumption and high heat output.
The construction of this structure must begin with a pre-prepared foundation. This is important to remember. As a result, the Dutch kiln circuit must separately contain calculations of the foundation parameters, relying on the dimensions of the above-ground structure. The location of the firebox should be at least 25-30 cm above the floor. This is necessary to ensure fast and uniform heating of the room. From other designs of this type differs oven "Dutch" with certain specific features. Namely:
- The firebox is volumetric. However, he does not have an ashtray under him.
- The firebox is always rectangular in shape. This is even in curvilinear designs.
- In this furnace there are three lifting and release channels. They are arranged one above another and provide a sequence of gas motion.
Furnace "Dutch" with your own hands: tools and materials for the manufacture of
For the construction of this object, you need to thoroughly prepare. Constructed oven "Dutch" with a stove requires:
- Stock of full-bodied red brick.
- Pre-cleaned river sand.
- Refractory bricks to equip the combustion chamber.
- Clay construction.
- Concrete for foundation construction.
- Door for an ash-pit and a firebox.
- Grate grates.
- Steel wire for the installation of doors.
- Rectangular sledgehammer.
- Trowel combined.
- The sharp-angled sledgehammer.
- Wooden and metal ramming.
- Extensions for convex and concave seams.
- Blades of mortar.
- Material for waterproofing.
- Level of construction.
- Measuring tape measure.
- Asbestos cord.
Each massive structure should be supported on a certain base. In order for the Dutch oven to be made, a foundation will also be required. The simplest process is to hold the plate device in the base. In this case, there is one particular nuance. It consists in the fact that it is necessary to conduct the reinforcement of the plate under the oven "Dutch", capturing not only its entire area, but also its volume. Here it is necessary to take into account certain dimensions. The minimum length / width of the slab should be 120 cm. The second nuance is that sandbases should be buried between the foundations of the house and the stove.
Work on the foundation
In this direction, it is necessary to carry out certain actions. Namely:
- It should be noted the size of the planned design. If the building already has a floor covering, then it must be disassembled. Here it is necessary to take into account the fact that it is still necessary to make room for work.
- It is necessary to stir the solution in standard proportions - 1: 3.
- Next, pour the first element of the plate. In this case, it is not necessary to conduct deep penetration.
- Next on the still not frozen surface of the mortar layer, it is necessary to lay the reinforcing bars in a grid. Between them, the distance should be 10-12 cm.
- After that, immediately pour the rest of the solution over the laid out reinforcement and level the surface. In this case there is a certain condition. It consists in the fact that the more level the foundation plate is, the simpler it will be to observe the order of the Dutch oven.
- Next, you need to "gland" is not yet frozen foundation foundation. To do this, you need to sprinkle pure cement on it. It should not be particularly zealous. To more evenly distribute the cement, you can use the sieve.
Next, consider how to build a heating furnace "Dutch" with a stove.
Let's start the mashing process
To do this, perform the following:
- Initially, the foundation requires the application of a waterproofing layer. For this, you can take a special film, waterproofing, pieces of roofing felt and roofing material or other materials.
- Over a waterproofing coating with a small layer( no more than 5 cm), river sifted sand should be poured. After this, it is necessary to level it and check the level with the leveling of the plane. Then the sand should be sprinkled with water.
- Construction of a device such as a Dutch oven begins with the fact that without the mortar the first row is laid. For structures having average dimensions, this is approximately 12 bricks. They must first be properly decomposed, then check the level and only then top with a solution of a small layer. Do it all over the top surface.
- The second and third row are already laid on the mortar. There is a certain nuance here. It consists in the fact that in the third - last - row, where "flatten" bricks lie, the rest of the up to the upper side of the tailbox door is laid "on the edge".
- Starting with the 4th or 5th row, bricks of refractory type are used. They are usually yellow.
- Next on the 4th or 5th row, install the stand for the internal chimney. On the back wall without mortar, the installation of "knock-out bricks" is carried out. In the event that the oven "Dutch" is clogged during long operation, they will be pulled out for cleaning. Also here you can put the door. However, the heat will leave faster.
- Then you need to install the firebox door. It is desirable to wrap it beforehand with asbestos. However, you can do this with other non-combustible material. The door in the masonry seams is fixed. To do this, use steel wire.
- In the following series, it is necessary to repeat the contours of the fourth. This is done to the top of the door. This is important to know. The order of the Dutch oven can change before the door is installed. It depends on the height of the structure. Then, after finishing the tying of the door, the bricks must be laid flat again. Usually it starts with the 7th row. On the sixth they lay bricks on the edge. After that, again, it is necessary to check carefully the dressing, as well as the location and the horizontal angles.
- You should pay attention to the fact that the bricks in the seventh row should be laid flat. However, on the back wall, they must be left on the edge. And only then laying out all subsequent series will be carried out flat. This is an important process.
- In the eighth row above the furnace, the laying of sloping bricks is carried out. This is the characteristic peculiarity of the construction. This scheme of laying the oven "Dutch" allows you to use this building as a fireplace when opening the furnace. This is quite an important function. The stove door already covers this masonry completely.
- In the ninth row, the brick needs to be slightly displaced backwards. At the top of this masonry, a non-flammable type material should be laid. This is best done with an asbestos cord, on top of which you need to install the hob. Do not forget that you need to ensure that there are full joints, seams and joints of cast iron and bricks.
- In the 10th row, it is necessary to form the basis for the planned chimney. For furnaces of light and medium type, this element of brick is not constructed. He is too heavy. For this, you need to pick up a metal pipe.
- In the eleventh row, the valve is inserted with an asbestos seal. Also at this height, it is necessary to form the joint of the furnace with the chimney pipe. In this case the masonry is carried out in a quarter.
- After the masonry of the Dutch oven has been completed, the chimney must be installed on top of the structure. This technology is the same for all types of furnaces. The gap between the given structure and the floor must necessarily be closed with the pre-piercing sheet. If this is not done, then from the resulting design it will be easy to get enough sand.
The Dutch kiln can be glazed with tiles. It is also possible to whitewash, paint the structure, or leave it like that, without applying an exterior finish. With the help of special plinths, all joints with the floor are closed. After the oven is finished, it should be dried within 2 weeks with the open firebox door. Before this, it is forbidden to breed a strong fire. Thrust is checked by burning a small amount of paper in the firebox.
Having familiarized with the above, everyone can imagine what a Dutch oven is like, how it is constructed, and what materials and tools are needed for this. It is only necessary to read the text carefully.