Modern parents try to give the child to school as early as possible and many begin preparing for classes as early as 4 years. But psychologists and teachers often oppose, arguing their position by saying that a child at 4 years old is simply not ready for such stresses and all activities at this age should only take place in a game form. So, what should a child be able to do in 4 years, and on what features of development should parents pay their attention?
The physical development of a child in 4 years
The growth of a child in 4 years is approximately 95-110 cm, and the boys do not differ much in height from girls, but their weight is usually slightly larger - from 15 to 20 kg, girls weigh 4 yearsapproximately 14 to 18 kg. At 4 years, most children can boast a full "set" of milk teeth - 20 pieces and a good appetite - kids with pleasure eat 4-5 times a day, although often become noticeably thinner than before. To sleep in the afternoon after 4 years only children, accustomed to the afternoon r
The physical development of the child at 4 years is somewhat slowed down, now the kid no longer runs and does not jump all day from morning to night. If earlier a small fidget could run and jump or dance without any apparent purpose - just for the sake of movement, now he is only interested in moving games, ball games or other "meaningful" pastime. Therefore, parents of four-year-olds should pay more attention to the infant's motor activity, otherwise the child can spend most of the day in front of the TV, playing with toys, painting and coloring. Most parents are happy with this behavior, believing that the baby has finally matured and has stopped turning the whole house upside down, but a decrease in motor activity not only negatively affects a child's health, but also accustoms him to a sedentary lifestyle. Cope with the shortage of traffic can be through regular absenteeism and outdoor games or writing a child in the sports section. At this age, the can already begin attending the athletics, gymnastics, dance or swimming section of the .
In 4 years the child improves the skill of owning his body, now he not only quickly and confidently runs, but also jumps, walks on one leg, climbs on the Swedish wall and can ride a scooter or a tricycle. Many children at this age turn into real little monkeys - they climb on ropes, horizontal bars, trees, forcing their parents to be very nervous. If your kid is characterized by such a passion for arrogance, do not limit his development - give more time to physical exercises, purchase a home sports complex or take the karapuza to the children's mountaineering section.
At the age of 4 years, children should already be able to handle any cutlery, gently and independently wash their hands, wash and watch their appearance. It is also considered mandatory that the baby can already fully control his natural needs, if problems arise with this, it may be worth consulting with a child psychologist or neurologist, as children's enuresis often occurs against the background of the child's psychological problems. It is normal if a child of 4 years very rarely wakes up on time at night, and in the afternoon such cases should be single.
In 4 years olds should already not only undress, but also dress themselves, although they still need help from adults - fasten buttons, tie up shoelaces or fix clothes.
No less important in assessing a child's development are his self-service skills - so a child in 4 years should know, how to take food from the refrigerator, open the faucet independently to wash the hands of , know where his clothes are stored and what things you need to put on now,be able to wear outerwear and shoes.
In addition to self-service skills, a 4-year-old kid can and should help his parents at home, he must have his duties: remove toys, collect dishes from the table or wipe dust with his mother. This will not only teach the child to observe the order, but also will positively affect his self-esteem - "I help my mother", will bring up perseverance, independence and diligence in him. Moreover, it is necessary to teach both boys and girls to such work, not trying to divide classes by gender, because at that age children spend most of their time with their mother, and perform "purely male" duties such as driving nails and dragging heavy loads a four-year-oldwill be able.
Neuropsychiatric development of a child
In 4 years it is difficult to assess and even comment on the skills and abilities of a child - at this age they almost 100% depend on how much time and attention parents give to the development of their baby. Therefore, the norm usually takes the skills and abilities that most children who attend pre-school establishments possess.
At the age of 4, the child's vocabulary counts about 1000 words that are actively used, and if for 3-year-old children their ability to understand the speech of an adult and the ability to explain themselves to parents and other close people was considered the four-year-old should already speak so that hiseveryone around understood. At this age the child costs phrases of 6-8 words, correctly inclines words by numbers and cases, and also independently thinks up words using the rules of the native language. The kid tries to use in his speech all the words heard from adults, peers or on television, it is with this feature of the development of speech that the four-year-old can be heard as an unexpectedly "smart" scientific word, and an obscene expression pronounced with great pleasure.
In four years the cognitive ability of the baby is growing, now he easily remembers letters, numbers, unfamiliar words and concepts. Starting to teach a child at this age of reading or counting is very important not just to force the child to memorize numbers or letters, but to teach him to think logically, to establish connections between written and spoken words. The best teaching material at this age will be the subjects around the child, and the training should be conducted constantly and in a playful form. For example: "Now let's draw the letter A on the ground with a stick, lay out it with matches, pasta, buttons or let's drink it," so the kid must absorb the score without memorizing the figures, but counting apples in a vase, cubes on the floor or pigeons on the street.
In 4 years is considered normal if the child collects the simplest puzzles or cut-out pictures of 4-5 parts of , knows how to stack a pyramid, distinguishes objects by colors, shape and other generalizing features, cuts paper in straight lines and can sculpt simple figures from plasticine- balls, "sausages" and so on.
A four-year-old child becomes much more socially active, many psychologists advise at this age to begin attending pre-school institutions. In 4 years, kids already know how to play together in mobile and board games, solve most conflicts on their own, and also observe the rules of the children's society: they understand that they need to wait their turn, do not snatch other people's toys, and so on.
At this age, children become more independent and "independent" from their parents, and moms and dads prefer to ask endless questions and, of course, do something with them. The common mistake of parents of children after 4 years is the termination of joint games and classes, if earlier it was a necessity, because a kid just can not do anything for a long time, then after 4 years most children play alone or in the company of other children. And parents gladly quit conscience games or walks, preferring to do their own business, but as psychologists warn, this "freedom" has a downside - parents lose close contact with their child and often do not even guess what "street friends" teach himand what games he plays with them. Of course, joint games with other children are necessary, but parents must know about the mood, thoughts and actions of their child.
What should a child be able to do in 4 years
The most important skills and abilities at this age are:
Boys and girls in 4 years
In 4 years, the difference in speech development between boys and girls is especially noticeable. For the fair sex it is important to say as much as possible, express your feelings, feelings and so on, their speech is more developed, they are easier to remember and use new words and try to speak as correctly and as clearly as possible. For boys it is important to inform the people around 4 years, so they often say short sentences, distort words or speak "their own" language, without particularly worrying, understand them or not.
At this age, the difference between boys and girls in evaluating one and the same objects and actions becomes noticeable. Girls are more concerned about their own attitude towards what is happening and how this can affect them. Seeing something new, first of all they answer the question: I like it or not. But boys are more interested in the very essence of what is happening, so the question that they will ask in a similar situation: what is it? And why is it necessary? ".