Thyroid adenoma is a benign neoplasm in the glandular epithelium. It looks like a node of round or oval shape, which is separated from the thyroid tissue by a fibrous capsule. It can be formed in any person, regardless of sex and age, but most often occurs in women 40-60 years of age. The adenoma grows slowly, but if it is not treated in time, it can reach a large size, which leads to a violation of breathing and swallowing, pain and voice changes. In addition, the "neglected" adenoma can degenerate into a malignant tumor.
Classification of thyroid adenoma
Morphological signs of thyroid neoplasm can be divided into three types.
1. Follicular thyroid adenoma.
Consists of follicular cells that are benign, but outwardly very similar to malignant. Therefore, it is quite difficult to distinguish the follicular adenoma of the thyroid gland from adenocarcinoma. This kind of adenoma does not produce hormones, so in the early stages it is asymptomatic. If a person noticed an unexpected loss of weight,
2. Toxic adenoma of the thyroid gland( papillary).
This type of adenoma is benign and hormonal active. It produces thyroid hormone, the excess of which causes thyrotoxicosis. Toxic adenomab is two types: compensated and decompensated. With compensated adenoma signs of excess thyroid hormone are very weak. Decompensated type of toxic adenoma is characterized by severe thyrotoxicosis, which is manifested in weight loss, increased sweating, a sharp change in mood, rapid heartbeat.
Toxic adenoma of the thyroid gland reduces the functions of the thyroid and pituitary gland, causing disturbances in the cardiovascular system.
3. Adenoma from Gurtle cells( oncocytic adenoma).
This type of tumor can be both malignant and benign. Oncocytic adenoma are accumulations from cells with a contoured, structured cytoplasm, in the center there is a nucleus. With this type of adenoma, the follicles are absent altogether or there are microfliccles. Oncocyte adenoma should be urgently treated to prevent it from becoming a new malignant tumor.
The main symptoms of adenoma
The clinical manifestation of adenoma is a node in the thyroid gland. It can be either one or several, in one or both lobes of the gland. The disease does not affect the operation of the gland, except the toxic adenoma of the thyroid gland( Plummer's disease), in which the symptoms of hyperthyroidism manifest themselves.
At the initial stage, the adenoma manifests itself with the following symptoms:
1. Increased fatigue, even with little physical exertion.
2. Increased sweating.
3. Rapid heart rate, even in sleep or rest.
4. Poor tolerance of high ambient temperature.
5. Increased irritability.
6. A sharp decrease in body weight with an unchanged lifestyle and diet.
If thyroid adenoma is not treated, then the above symptoms will be supplemented with increased arterial pressure, abnormalities in the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract, increased body temperature, changes in the cardiovascular system( thyrotoxic myocardial dystrophy, atrial fibrillation and eventually heart failure).
Older patients often have complaints of shortness of breath, heart palpitations, weakness, insomnia or drowsiness.
Diagnosis of adenoma
Before diagnosing an adenoma, the doctor will refer the patient for a checkup, which includes:
- ultrasound examination of the gland;
- cytological examination( to distinguish thyroid cancer from adenoma);
- blood test for thyroid hormone levels;
- biochemical blood test.
Thyroid adenoma treatment
There are two methods of treating thyroid adenoma: medication and operative. Of course, initially applied sparing therapy. If she did not give the expected effect, then a surgical operation is performed.
Drug treatment is aimed at the destruction of the neoplasm. To do this, prescribe drugs that inhibit the production of thyroid-stimulating hormone - suppressive therapy. This kind of therapy should be under the strict supervision of a doctor, since the side effect of this treatment is cardiovascular disorders and manifestations of osteoporosis in children and women. But suppressive therapy gives a positive result in 80% of diseases.
To treat thyroid adenoma, phytotherapy is also used. Use of plants that can cause destruction of tumor cells or reduce the production of hormones: common blackhead, Pacific yew, autumn autumn crocus, periwinkle pink, European zucchar.
In addition, conducted a comprehensive drug treatment: detoxification, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, desensitizing. Antimetabolites and antimycotics, vitamin complexes are prescribed.
Also used for treatment are physiotherapy: laser therapy, magnetotherapy, acupuncture.
Another inoperable method of treating adenoma is the introduction of ethyl alcohol in a volume of 1-8 ml into the tumor. This procedure is carried out several times. It is expected that under the action of ethyl, the destruction of tumor cells will occur.
In patients who are contraindicated in the operation of thyroid adenoma, treatment is applied by introducing a radioactive iodine into the tumor.
Thyroid adenoma operation
Thyroid adenoma surgery is performed if the medication failed to produce the expected result, a large tumor, the patient is a woman who wants to have children in the future.
Before the operation, individually selected medication is performed. It is also recommended to adhere to a diet rich in proteins and vitamins, avoid psycho-emotional stress, a full sleep. It is forbidden to visit the solarium and stay in the open sun for a long time.
The operation is performed under local anesthesia. The incision is made in the lower part of the neck. If there is a single tumor in the thyroid gland, then only the sore portion of the gland is removed. If there are many tumors or they are large, then completely remove the gland.
In the absence of complications after the operation of thyroid adenoma the patient is discharged for 2-3 days, otherwise they can be left under observation for a week.
Timely diagnosis and treatment of adenomas in most cases leads to recovery. If an operation was performed and the gland is completely removed, then the person takes life-long substitution therapy( thyroid hormones).
It will also be necessary to undergo an examination once a year from an endocrinologist, regularly donate blood to thyroid hormones, stop using alcohol and tobacco, and avoid prolonged exposure to the sun.