Abortion, according to the timing, is early and late. Termination of pregnancy up to 12 weeks is called an abortion in the early term, it is carried out at the request of a woman. Termination of pregnancy from 12 to 22 weeks is termed abortion in the late term, it is prescribed for medical or social reasons.
Abortion at the gestational age of up to 22 weeks is performed at medical institutions licensed for this type of activity by physicians who have received special training.
Medical and social indications for abortion
Abortion on the term of pregnancy from 12 to 22 weeks is carried out after the woman has passed the medical consultation commission. The commission studies all the materials on the patient's health and gives directions for an abortion. In most cases, the final decision to have an abortion is made by a pregnant woman. Consider what medical indications can be the basis for an abortion in a late pregnancy:
- ectopic pregnancy;
- fetal death;
- abnormal intrauterine development of the fetus;
- severe diseases of the pregnant: eye, liver, kidney, lung, cardiovascular, ulcer, diabetes, tuberculosis, epilepsy, syphilis, oncological diseases, hematological diseases, CNS( central nervous system) diseases, mental illness;
- relieved less than a year ago with severe cavity and other surgeries;
- diseases or adverse effects during pregnancy that may lead to abnormal fetal development( rubella or irradiation with radiation).
Social reasons for abortion for a period of 12 to 22 weeks:
- imprisonment of a pregnant woman;
- the pregnant woman has a disabled child;
- death of a husband during pregnancy;
- divorce with her husband during pregnancy;
- in a pregnant woman has 5 children or more;
- pregnant - underage( under 16 years of age);
- pregnancy occurred as a result of rape.
How is abortion performed on a small pregnancy?
There are several methods for conducting an abortion at an early pregnancy:
- surgical( "scraping").
Vaccine abortion for up to 6 weeks is a relatively safe way to terminate a pregnancy. The procedure is performed under anesthesia. The doctor uses special tools to open the cervix, insert a flexible vacuum suction tube into the uterine cavity and suck out the fetal egg. Vacuum method of abortion leads to complete abortion in 95 - 100% of patients.
Medical abortion for up to 8 weeks also refers to safe methods of abortion. It is carried out with the help of medicines in the form of tablets. In some tablets the active ingredient mifepristone( Mifegin, Mifeprex), in others misoprostol. These pills are not sold in pharmacies, they can only be obtained from a gynecologist. The patient takes 600 mg.mifepristone( 3 tablets of 200 mg.) in the presence of a doctor. And in 36 - 48 hours after that takes a tablet of misoprostol. After that, the egg is rejected by the uterus and leaves. The drug abortion terminates in complete abortion in 95 - 98% of cases.
Surgical abortion for up to 12 weeks is the most unsafe of early termination of pregnancy. Unfortunately, this is the most common method of abortion in our country. Surgical abortion has another name - dilation and curettage, and in everyday life - "scraping".This procedure is under anesthesia. The doctor with the help of surgical dilators or by administering medication to the patient opens the cervix( dilatation), and then scraps the uterine cavity with a special curette tool( curettage).
How is abortion performed on a long pregnancy?
Abortion on a long gestation period is carried out by the following methods: either dilatation and evacuation are carried out, or artificial birth is caused.
Abortion on the term of pregnancy from 13 to 22 weeks is carried out by dilatation and evacuation. This method involves the extraction of the fetus from the uterine cavity with the help of medications and mechanical expanders. An abortion at the gestational age of 18 weeks preliminarily carries out the procedure for the termination of the fetus. Then, with the help of mechanical expanders, the cervix is opened( dilatation) and the fetus is removed.
Artificial childbirth is a method of aborting pregnancy on the term of pregnancy from 20 weeks. With this method, a woman is injected with medications that cause labor. The child who emerged as a result of such births is not viable.
Consequences of an abortion
Regardless of when and how an abortion was performed, it is definitely stress for the body. Even a vacuum abortion for up to 4 weeks will entail hormonal and physiological changes, which will certainly affect your health. Especially if this is the woman's first pregnancy.
Abortion on a small pregnancy will bring less harm to the woman's body than abortion on a long term. But in either case, the artificial termination of pregnancy will harm the health, and its consequences can "respond" after many years.
Consider the consequences of the abortion, depending on the timing of their occurrence:
- Early consequences of abortion: incomplete removal of the fetal egg in the uterus, the occurrence of complications after anesthesia, damage to the walls and cervix and / or abdominal organs, bleeding.
- Late consequences of abortion: postabortion syndrome( psychopathological symptoms), peritonitis( inflammation of the abdominal cavity), inflammation of the uterine cavity( endometritis, parametritis), placental polyp, infection.
- The long-term consequences of abortion: uterine myoma, chronic genital diseases, premature birth after pregnancy, menstrual irregularities, severe obstetric pathologies.