Lack of attention is one of the reasons for the poor learning of children of primary school age. To a child who does not have sufficient attention, it is difficult to concentrate on the material being delivered, he experiences difficulties with memorization. Therefore, it is so important to develop this quality in children. Specialists recommend that the child be engaged in special games and exercises to develop attention that can be performed at home. But in order to properly organize such activities, parents should understand what the notion of "attention" is.
What is attention?
Attention refers to the most important human qualities. It characterizes the process of selecting the necessary information and discarding unnecessary information. The human brain every second takes thousands of signals from the outside world. Attention is a kind of filter that "sifts" all incoming information, protecting our brain from "overload".
Scientists have identified the properties of attention, the violation of
- attention span - when it decreases, the kid can not concentrate on several subjects at once, keep them in mind;
- selectivity of attention - with its lack the kid is not able to concentrate on that part of the material that is needed to solve the task;
- resistance and concentration - when they decrease, the child can not stay focused for a long time, constantly distracted;
- switchability of attention - with poor development of this property, it is difficult for a toddler to switch from one activity to another;
- attention distribution - in case of insufficient development of the child, it is difficult to carry out several tasks simultaneously;
- arbitrariness of attention - at its lack the kid is difficult to concentrate attention on demand.
In order to overcome the above deficiencies, a properly organized work is necessary.
The main rule of playing games and exercises to develop attention - systematic. Do it every day preferably 1-2 days a week. The duration of classes in the first days should not be more than 15-20 minutes, gradually increasing.
Exercises for development of attention for junior schoolchildren
It is very important to interest the child from the first classes. At a younger school age, children perceive classes better, if they take place in a playful form, allow them to show initiative and imagination.
Here are the most popular exercises for developing attention for younger schoolchildren.
"What has changed?" On the table lay small items, for example, a pencil, a match, an eraser. The total number of them should be 10-15 pieces. Within 30 seconds( can be counted to 30) the child should consider the location of objects. Then he turns to the table with his back, and three or four objects are moved to another place. After that, the child turns to the table and examines the objects again for 30 seconds. The newspaper sheet covers the items on the table, and the kid describes which ones have been moved and where.
"Find a house". The child is offered a drawing, which depicts 7-8 different animals, each of which is looking for his house. It is possible that the animal and the house connect the lines. Ask the kid, without conducting a pencil along the lines, to determine where his house is. If in the first classes it will be difficult for him to do this, let him use a pencil. In subsequent classes it is necessary that he find a house without the help of a pencil.
"Color the second half." Prepare a picture painted in half. Ask the baby to color the second half, exactly as the first one is painted. In the next lessons, complicate the task. Invite the child to first finish the second half of the picture, and then paint it. For such figures, choose symmetrical images, for example, a butterfly, a house, a dragonfly, a Christmas tree.
"Edible - inedible". Throw the child a ball, while naming items( edible and inedible).If the object is edible, the kid must catch the ball, if inedible - the ball is skipped.
"I will not get through". The child counts aloud from 1 to 31. Instead of numbers including a triple, or multiple of three, you need to say: "I will not disassemble".For example: "One, two, I will not get out, four, five, I will not get out, seven,. ..".Exercise to develop attention, memory and thinking for children after seven years.
"Find the Differences". The schoolboy is shown a series of written numbers, for example, 45789132. They give him a look at them, then the numbers are closed. The child should answer what figures he remembered, how many everything is written down, call the neighbors numbers 7, 9, 3.
"Invoice with interference". A child of primary school age is given a sheet of paper and a pen. He should call numbers from 1 to 20, simultaneously writing down the same numerical sequence, but in the reverse order. Thus, when he says "1", he writes "20" and so on.
"What happens?". The child is offered to answer questions, looking for the maximum number of answers. You can ask the following questions:
- what is high?(pillar, tree, house, person);
- what happens is wide?
- what happens to be long?
- what happens round?
- what happens fluffy?
- what happens cold?
This is a good exercise in developing attention, memory and thinking for children of primary school age.
«Do it as I do». Take six matches, spread out of them an arbitrary composition. Invite the child 1-2 seconds to look at her to remember. Then he must repeat the composition of the matches. In addition to matches, you can use beads, counting sticks and other small items.
"Describe the subject". Call a child an item, and he should describe it. And it is necessary to describe not only visual characteristics( size, shape, color), but also sensations. For example, cotton wool is white, soft, fluffy and so on. It is important that the child calls as many characteristics of the subject as possible.