Progesterone is the most important hormone for a woman to perform her childbearing function. Its main task is to prepare the uterus first for fertilization, and then for childbirth. At the rate of pregnancy there is a certain "matrix" of its concentration in different periods of fetal development. But sometimes these proportions are violated, and a woman should well imagine what different deviations are saying, and what to do if they arise.
The role of the hormone progesterone
As far back as the 30s of the last century, scientists from different countries were allocated a hormone progesterone. His discovery was made in the study of the functions of the yellow body of the ovaries. At the same time, it was possible to trace the relationship of this substance with the probability of conception and its effect on the development of the fetus. The very name of the hormone saying: in Latin it means "bear".
The bursted follicle( yellow body), after the release of the egg, begins to produce progesterone.
This substance is very important for the calm course of pregnancy, prevention of miscarriage, it helps the muscles prepare for the process of procreation, and the growth of mammary glands contributes. To the development of tissues in the fetus, progesterone is also involved, that is, it is a multifunctional component. Other of its tasks: the ordering of the metabolism in the mother's body, the optimization of insulin production, the activity of the nervous and immune system.
The norm of progesterone in pregnancy
Even in normal life, the concentration of progesterone in the woman's blood changes wavy, depending on the phase of the menstrual cycle. Its highest level is noted in the so-called luteal phase( in the period between ovulation and the onset of menstruation), then the numbers 6,99-56,63 nmol / l are fixed. The range of values is large enough, because each organism is individual.
The same situation is with the norm of progesterone in pregnancy: it varies considerably by months, and at the same time, in different future mothers the indicators vary. So, in the first trimester the average figures are: 8,9-468,4 nmol / l;in the second: 71.5 - 303.1;in the third: from 88.7 to 771.5 nmol / l.
There is also a more detailed "storyboard" of the average progesterone content for weeks, and if pregnancy occurs with some deviations, then this parameter is monitored continuously.
Assay to determine the level of progesterone
This test is done on an empty stomach. Since the study requires plasma, the blood sample is taken from the vein. Before the analysis should avoid the stress: mental and physical, and a couple of days before the procedure must stop taking hormones( steroid and thyroid), if they were previously assigned. With a sufficiently clear cycle( we are talking about tests before pregnancy), it is best to give blood seven days before the onset of menstruation.
The question of the frequency and the specific time of conducting such studies with the onset of pregnancy is decided by the doctor.
Low progesterone in pregnancy: causes and correction of
It is understood that the lack of this hormone prevents conception. And already at its approach such deviations can speak about the presence of a number of deviations. In particular, low progesterone in pregnancy can be a consequence of chronic inflammatory processes, especially in the reproductive system;violations of the functions of the placenta;Hormonal failure may occur and on the background of taking a number of medications. Hypoxia of the fetus, that is, insufficient supply of oxygen, intrauterine growth retardation, ectopic pregnancy can also give a lowered level of progesterone.
Symptoms that help to track the presence of this problem: causeless body weight increase, bloating, mammary gland deformity, hair loss, thrombosis, depressive manifestations. Treatment can only be prescribed by a doctor: such drugs as Dufaston, Utrozestan, including a synthetic hormone, or injections of progesterone in pregnancy with the same name.
These drugs are contraindicated for liver disease, vaginal bleeding, breast tumors. Extremely cautious to administer drugs can be for problems of the cardiovascular and nervous systems, bronchial asthma, diabetes. But even without these inhibitions, individual side reactions may occur, such as spotting, headaches and other symptoms of neurosis.
How to keep in normal?
To maintain the norm of hormones will help strict adherence to diet and diet, first of all, saturate the table with vitamins E and C. Healthy sleep, the optimal regime of the day will also help keep the body in tone and maintain a healthy hormonal background.
Food and household dyes can cause failures, they should be excluded during pregnancy. And in general, a woman needs a responsible attitude to herself and her future child, the fulfillment of all prescriptions of the doctor.
Elevated progesterone in pregnancy
Deviations are possible in the opposite direction. If the progesterone is "off scale", then it is worth doing an ultrasound and making sure that there are no cysts of the yellow body. This phenomenon can be caused by another cause - various diseases of the adrenal glands, including tumors. An overabundance of medicines, as well as a multiple pregnancy, are also capable of giving similar changes in concentration.
Increased progesterone appears in pregnancy with mammary gland soreness, vaginal bleeding, abrupt fluctuations in body weight, increased body temperature and neurotic phenomena.
And in this case, you should not be light-minded about these symptoms, you should immediately consult a doctor and fully, timely fulfill appointments.