Antibodies are protein compounds that enter into specific reactions with other substances in body cells. Their presence in the blood can have both positive and negative effects on health, depending on the direction of the effect.
What are we fighting against?
According to the composition of the antibody are immunoglobulins( proteins).When a woman carries a child, her defenses of the immune system decrease, she becomes vulnerable to all sorts of infectious diseases, and chronic diseases worsen. And in this case, the presence of antibodies in pregnancy is only beneficial if it is about antibodies aimed at combating the sources of these dysfunctions.
Particular attention is paid to the mother's ability to withstand so-called TORCH infections. This group includes such dangerous ailments as herpes, rubella, toxoplasmosis. They primarily represent a threat to the baby:
- adversely affects the nervous system of the fetus;
- delay the development of other organs and systems;
- increases the risk of miscarriage and congenital anomalies;
- provoke the birth of a dead child.
If the corresponding antibodies in the blood are not detected during pregnancy, this should alert. When the birth of the child is planned, the future mother should better pass the antibody test beforehand, while the pregnancy has not yet come. Then there will be an opportunity, having found out absence of antibodies to a rubella and other TORCH-infections, simply to inoculate and to protect itself and the kid from problems. Other tests that can be prescribed during pregnancy: tests for antibodies to Chlamydia infection, HIV, hepatitis, syphilis, ureaplasmosis, and compatibility with her husband's sperm.
Antibodies in pregnancy in norm and danger of deviations
But more often than not, antibodies are remembered when it comes to the probability of Rh-incompatibility. By itself, the Rh factor is just a special protein, it is contained in the blood of 85% of people, which is why this blood is called Rh-positive. Rhesus-negative blood - not having this component. In future parents, this indicator can be different. Medical practice shows: no complications arise if the mother has a Rh factor positive, and the father - negative. But in the opposite scenario: the negative Rh factor in a woman and the positive in a man - it just starts producing antibodies. Then the Rhesus-conflict is observed in 75% of cases. Therefore it is important to know what is the norm of antibodies in pregnancy, for which there is a titer of antibodies, showing how many grams of sought antibodies are in one milliliter of solution. Rhesus-negative blood of a pregnant woman perceives Rh-positive red blood cells of the fetus as foreign. And creates antibodies that can penetrate the placenta and harm the baby. Specifically, this is manifested in a decrease in the content of hemoglobin( anemia), the functions of the baby's organs are disrupted, and intoxication occurs. And these are the symptoms of hemolytic disease, which will manifest immediately after the birth of the child and will require urgent blood transfusion and other resuscitation measures.
How to avoid such consequences? Set the Rh factor( your and partner) before pregnancy. Or with its offensive to immediately stand on the special account. Control antibodies in the blood during pregnancy will have once a month until the 32nd week, and then - twice a month and weekly. Less risks during the first pregnancy, then the number of antibodies increases, respectively, and their effect on the fetus also increases.
Titer of antibodies in pregnancy and ways of overcoming Rh-conflict
The complexity of diagnosing Rh-conflict is that the mother herself has no clinical manifestations, her condition does not change. Hemolytic disease develops in the fetus! The baby has symptoms of jaundice, anemia, hypoxia develops, that is, oxygen starvation. All organs and systems suffer, the consequences can simply be disastrous. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the antibody titer during pregnancy and to react immediately in case of alarming indices. Moreover, a single analysis is not enough, it is required to monitor the dynamics of this indicator constantly.
Sometimes mothers are frightened by unfavorable predictions and go on aborting pregnancy, which is unacceptable: antibodies only increase their activity and in the next pregnancy the situation will become more complicated. It is better to carry out the therapy shown on time and be constantly observed by a specialist, following all the recommendations.
Complications of Rhesus Conflict and the Possibility of Prevention
We have already spoken about the problems of Rh-conflict for the fetus. We will add only that without intrauterine intervention, fetal death is possible, and this inevitably affects the condition of the mother, sometimes it is very critical. Possible and ectopic pregnancy, miscarriages, premature detachment of the placenta and other complications. Therefore, it is so important to strictly observe the antibody titer schedule during pregnancy and in time to stop its fluctuations. However, cases of early delivery are frequent, including with caesarean section.
Prevention of Rh-conflict is the introduction of anti-rhesus immunoglobulin D, both during pregnancy and after childbirth or in the event of an early termination of pregnancy. Especially with abundant blood loss, when the dosage of the drug is increased.
Group antibodies in pregnancy and conflict in the blood group
Not everyone understands why it is necessary to carry out an analysis for group antibodies in pregnancy( hemolysins).This is done in order to determine the probability of conflict in the blood group. It can occur if the mother has blood group I, and his father has II, III or IV.Without going into the details of the course of biological reactions, let's just say that this analysis is a chance to avoid an immunological conflict or significantly reduce the consequences of its manifestations.
Whatever the risks, they can be minimized and virtually eliminated by planning a pregnancy and adhering to medical recommendations during all of its months.