Pregnancy is the process during which a fertilized egg, gradually developing in the womb of a woman, becomes a child capable of living outside the mother's body. Obstetricians-gynecologists consider the duration of pregnancy for weeks. Each week of pregnancy corresponds to a certain stage of intrauterine development of the child.
The Importance of the Pregnancy Calendar
Doctors have long established that when the fetus's arms and legs are formed, when it begins to stir actively, how should it grow, weight and anthropometric indicators at the end of each month of pregnancy. A gynecologist sends a woman "in position" to a control ultrasound( ultrasound) to make sure that the child grows and develops normally, in accordance with the normative parameters indicated in the pregnancy calendar.
Nowadays, any woman who carries a baby, if she wishes, can independently learn about how her baby's fetal development takes place step-by-step. The calendar of pregnancy for weeks can be found on the Internet or
Intrauterine development delay
The gynecologist regularly compares the child's development indices with normative data, as in every tenth case the pregnant woman is diagnosed with a complication, such as a delay in intrauterine development of the fetus. This pathology is characterized by the fact that the mass and dimensions of the child( by 10% or more) are lower than the permissible deviations of the normative indices at this term of pregnancy. The appearance of such complications can lead to:
- development of intrauterine infection due to decreased immunity;
- formation of transient hypothyroidism in a newborn;
- pathology of the development of the central nervous system of the child, which later manifests itself in neurological disorders in the baby;
- the entry of meconium into the respiratory tract of the fetus;
- fetal asphyxia during labor;
- injury to the child during childbirth.
In especially severe cases, when an intrauterine growth retardation is diagnosed for more than 4 weeks, fetal death is possible. Therefore, it is very important to identify in a timely manner the presence of deviations in the formation of the child. Unfortunately, often this pathology at the initial stage is asymptomatic. A gynecologist may suspect that intrauterine development of a woman's fetus has slowed down according to the following factors:
- in ultrasound results, an increase in fetal size is below normal;
- change in motor activity of the fetus for no apparent reason;
- abdominal circumference and the weight of the pregnant woman is below the normative indicators at this time.
Physiologically, a delay in fetal development of the fetus leads to placental insufficiency, because of which the child receives less oxygen, nutrients, vitamins and minerals. In most cases, placental insufficiency is provoked by such risk factors:
- excessive mental and physical stress;
- predilection of a pregnant woman to bad habits: drug and alcohol use, smoking;
- reception of antihypertensive and anticonvulsant drugs;
- harmful working conditions of a pregnant woman;
- presence in the history of diabetes and chronic diseases of the blood, kidneys, heart, vessels;
- inflammatory and pathological diseases of the genital organs;
- development of complications during pregnancy: rhesus-conflict between mother and fetus, gestosis, multiple pregnancies, abnormal placenta location;
- genetic abnormalities in fetal development, for example, Patau or Down syndrome;
- malformations of the fetus.
Medical treatment of a pregnant woman is reduced to taking drugs that improve blood properties, increase the elasticity of the vessels, relax the uterus, stimulate the production of protein, which have a calming effect on the nervous system. Simultaneously with the regular intake of medications, the pregnant woman will have to undergo a weekly examination( ultrasound, blood flow dopplerometry, cardiotocography) so that the gynecologist can assess the degree of fetal development and the effectiveness of the prescribed treatment.
In cases where, despite the treatment being performed, the fetal condition worsens( heart rate slows down and blood flow velocity) or more than two weeks there is no increase in parameters, regardless of the gestation period, the gynecologist conducts the woman with an early delivery.
Gynecologists emphasize pregnant women's attention to the fact that it is very important to visit a doctor regularly and undergo a check-up, as this will help to identify the delay in intrauterine fetal development in the early term and to prescribe an adequate and effective treatment that will improve placental blood flow, reduce the negative impact on the fetus, and save his life.