For the health and development of the baby you need nutrients, vitamins, minerals. All this he can get only with food. That is why it is very important to have a child's nutrition. Feeding children up to a year can be natural, artificial and mixed. Each method of feeding has its own characteristics and basic rules.
Natural feeding of children of the first year of life
Natural feeding is called infant feeding with mother's milk, followed by the introduction of complementary foods after 4.5 to 5 months. Breastfeeding of children under one year is the most physiological. Breast milk qualitatively and quantitatively provides all the baby's needs in proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, trace elements.
In the first five days after giving birth, colostrum emanates from the mother's breast. Due to its unique composition, it prepares the child's digestive system for breast milk, increases its immunity.
There are many advantages of feeding a baby with breast milk.
1. Breast milk contains albumin
2. Mother's milk contains the most optimal set of enzymes and vitamins for the child's body.
3. Feeding children under one year of breastmilk helps build local immunity of the gastrointestinal tract, protecting against many infectious diseases.
4. Due to the high content of enzymes such as lipase, trypsin, amylase in the mother's milk, the digestive system of the baby easily absorbs a large amount of food.
5. In breast milk, the ratio of phosphorus and calcium is the most physiological for a baby. Therefore, in infants who are breastfed, rickets are much less likely to develop than for infants who are on artificial feeding.
6. Only mother's milk contains the most optimal concentration for the children's organism of such important trace elements as iron, magnesium, sodium, cobalt, zinc, copper, selenium. Thanks to this, children who are breastfed develop better and less often suffer from anemia.
7. And the main "psychological" advantage of breastfeeding children up to a year is the formation of an emotional connection between the mother and the baby.
As can be seen from all of the above, breastfeeding is not in vain called the "golden standard" of baby nutrition.
Each mother decides what kind of diet to set her baby. Nowadays there are both supporters of feeding the child on demand, and supporters of feeding on the regime. Feeding the child according to the regime implies in the first three to four months to give the baby a breast 7 - 8 times a day. On average, the mother applies the baby every three hours with a break at six o'clock at night.
After 4 - 6 months, the child begins to introduce complementary foods. This is the gradual introduction of new food, which over time replaces one breastfeeding. The first lure can be started with vegetable puree or kashka. Vegetable puree is recommended to be administered to healthy, well-weighted babies. In addition, vegetables alleviate the condition of those children who suffer from constipation.
Porridges in the form of the first complementary foods are advised to introduce weakened, badly gaining weight to babies. They will help those children who are disturbed by frequent diarrhea.
A second lure is introduced a month after the first complementary meal. At the same time, if the first lure was vegetable puree, then the second is introduced porridge, and vice versa. By the age of seven months the baby can already be replaced by two breastfeedings.
After eight months, the baby is replaced by feeding one more feeding. Usually during this period in the diet of the child is introduced dairy products - kefir, yogurt, cottage cheese.
Feeding new food always starts with very small doses. If the baby has no undesirable reaction to a new product( skin rashes, intestinal colic, diarrhea or constipation), gradually increase the dose.
Feeding is always given at the beginning of feeding, after which continue breastfeeding.
Artificial feeding of a child
When feeding infants in the first year of life, breastfeeding is either completely absent or less than 1/5 of the daily volume of a child's food.
The need for artificial feeding can be caused by some serious illnesses and conditions of the mother or baby, lack of breast milk from a woman( agalactics).
The formula for artificial feeding is selected individually for each baby. This takes into account the physical development of the child, his health, appetite. For children of the first six months of life, they choose adapted "initial" mixtures. Since their composition is as close as possible to the composition of human milk during this period, they contain a reduced amount of protein. After six months the child is selected so-called "subsequent" mixtures. They are distinguished by a higher content of protein and minerals.
Mixtures for the artificial feeding of children up to a year should be selected by a pediatrician.
As with breastfeeding, the regime of feeding a child on artificial feeding can be on demand or for a certain time. Each mother herself selects a diet for the baby.
Mixed feeding of children of the first year of life
There are often situations when a child lacks mother's milk. Of course, a woman should make every effort to initiate breastfeeding. But if the milk is still small, you need to switch to supplementing the child with artificial mixtures. Such feeding of children before the year is called mixed. With mixed feeding, the mother must adhere to the basic rules.
First, it is necessary to supplement the child with a mixture only after breastfeeding. Secondly, for every requirement of the baby, one must try to breastfeed it, in order to avoid the extinction of lactation. Thirdly, a small amount of supplementation should be given with a spoon or cup. Fourth, feeding a baby with an artificial mixture through a nipple, it is necessary to pick it correctly. The nipple should be sufficiently elastic, have 4 to 5 small holes.
Breastfeeding a child older than a year
Many mothers are interested in whether to continue breastfeeding after a year. During this period, each mother must decide for herself whether she wants to continue to feed the baby.
There are many benefits of breastfeeding after a year. According to the studies conducted, it is established that the children, who were fed for more than a year, are less sick. In addition, breastfeeding at this age makes him more self-confident, independent. Sometimes during a baby's illness, feeding can be a real salvation. Often a sick child refuses food, taking only the mother's breast.
Breastfeeding after a year is a completely natural process. Leading pediatricians indicate that it is most appropriate to start weaning the baby after 1.5 to 2 years.