Quite often, children are diagnosed with a decrease in hemoglobin in the blood. However, this condition does not have pronounced symptoms, so in most cases the diagnosis is made when examining the blood. Low hemoglobin is dangerous for the child's body with many complications. It is important to establish the disease in time and promptly begin treatment. Consider why the child has low hemoglobin and what are the main signs of this condition.
Why does the child have a low hemoglobin?
Hemoglobin is a complex iron-containing protein that binds to oxygen and transfers it to all organs and tissues. A low hemoglobin content in the blood is called anemia, or, iron deficiency anemia.
There are medical standards of hemoglobin in the blood of adults and children. In infants, the first two weeks of life they are 133-198 g / l, in infants up to four months - 102-140 g / l, the child 12 months - 112-140 g / l, from 1 to 5 years - 100-140g / l, from 5 to 10 years - 112-145 g / l.
The cause of low hemoglobi
Another reason for this condition in a baby can be a lack of iron in the dietary feeding of a nursing mother. So, often suffer from this condition are children of mothers-vegetarians, in the diet of which there are not enough iron-containing foods.
If the child is on artificial feeding, the infant nutritional formula should provide it with iron in the required quantities.
Premature transition from breastfeeding to artificial feeding can also cause a decrease in the hemoglobin level in the baby's blood.
The most common cause of low hemoglobin in a child after a year is malnutrition. If there are not enough foods containing iron in his diet, anemia will develop. In addition, the food of the child must contain a sufficient amount of manganese and copper. Manganese is necessary for the human body to synthesize iron. Copper - to transport iron to the bone marrow for the process of hematopoiesis. Also, copper is needed to convert iron, which comes from food( inorganic iron) into the iron needed for hematopoiesis( organic iron).
The process of iron absorption and hemoglobin formation slows down the following diseases and conditions:
- chronic and acute diseases, especially infectious;
- allergic reactions of the body;
- helminthic invasion;
- taking certain medications;
Signs of low hemoglobin in children
In the initial period, anemia in most children occurs almost asymptomatically. Specialists distinguish two stages of the development of this disease.
In the first stage( the level of hemoglobin is 100-80 g / l), there are usually no signs of anemia. Only in some cases there is a pronounced pallor of the skin of the face and mucous membranes.
In the second stage( the level of hemoglobin is less than 80 g / l), symptoms of low hemoglobin in the child appear. The baby develops rapid fatigue, there are dizziness and disorders of the functioning of certain organs. To provide the body's tissues with oxygen, the heart is forced to work faster to drive more blood through itself. This leads to its weakening. In addition, as a result of a decrease in immunity, the child is more likely to become infected with infectious diseases.
Also to the symptoms of low hemoglobin in a child are the following conditions:
- tinnitus, dyspnea;
- change in taste, for example, desire to eat land, chalk;
- lack of appetite;
- brittle nails and hair;
- dry, flaky skin;
- cracks in the corners of the mouth;
- frequent constipation or diarrhea;
- regular occurrence of stomatitis.
How dangerous is low hemoglobin?
Low hemoglobin in an early child can cause a slowdown in psychomotor, intellectual and psychoemotional development.
A decrease in the level of this protein in the baby's blood leads to a weakening of his immune system. As a consequence, the child often suffers, many diseases become chronic.
One should know that anemia is often a symptom of many diseases, quite often, quite severe. Most often it can indicate the development of gastritis, enteritis, dysbiosis. Therefore, it is very important to establish its cause, which only the doctor can do.
The main methods of treatment of low hemoglobin in a child
In most cases, special drug treatment for anemia is not required. It is only necessary to adjust the diet of the baby. It is necessary to watch, that it included a sufficient quantity of iron-containing products( liver, red meat, buckwheat, beans, beets, pomegranate, nuts, eggs).
If necessary, the doctor can prescribe special iron preparations for the child. For small children, there are dosage forms of such drugs in the form of drops.
In case the low hemoglobin level in a child is a symptom of the disease, the therapy is directed to its treatment.
In any case, only a doctor can determine the diagnosis and prescribe the correct treatment.