Children's bronchitis occurs frequently, especially during the cold season. Bronchitis is an inflammatory process that develops in the bronchi and is accompanied by the formation of sputum( mucus).Doctors distinguish several types of this disease. Consider what are the peculiarities of bronchitis, what is children's obstructive bronchitis, and how to treat children's bronchitis.
Bronchitis in children: causes, types, symptoms
Depending on the cause, distinguish certain types of bronchitis.
The most common viral childhood bronchitis. The cause of its development is a transmitted virus infection, usually the flu, as a result of which the mucous of the lower respiratory tract is affected. At the beginning of the disease, the child's throat becomes infected, after which the virus moves further - large bronchi are injured, then small bronchi.
Another cause of the appearance of childhood bronchitis is called a bacterial infection( bacterial bronchitis).
Sometimes there is a mixed form of the dise
There is allergic children's bronchitis, which is caused by certain allergens( pollen of plants, house dust).Under the influence of the allergen irritation of bronchial mucosa occurs, which provokes the appearance of bronchitis.
In some cases, bronchitis in children may occur under the influence of irritating physical and chemical factors: for example, tobacco smoke, gasoline vapors.
Sometimes children's bronchitis is one of the signs of congenital malformations of the respiratory system, in which purulent processes develop in the lungs. There are cases of development of bronchitis in the presence of parasitic infection in the child's body.
Distinguish acute, recurrent, chronic forms of bronchitis. Acute bronchitis occurs approximately 10-21 days after the onset of the disease. With a recurring course, the child suffers from bronchitis 3-4 times a year. With the chronic development of pediatric bronchitis, the baby has been ill with the disease for at least once a year for three or more months for at least two years.
In some cases, children have bronchiolitis - an inflammatory disease of the smallest bronchi, which is often diagnosed as a child's bronchitis. As a rule, children of the first year of life suffer from this disease.
The main symptoms of pediatric bronchitis are persistent cough( dry or wet), wheezing, chest pain, and fever. Often cough accompanied by sputum discharge. In this case, clear excretions indicate an acute form of bronchitis, excretion with pus - on the chronic course of the disease.
How to treat children's bronchitis?
The choice of a method of treatment of a children's bronchitis depends on a degree of gravity, presence of symptoms of disease and age of the child. It is possible to single out the main principles of the therapeutic effect:
- elimination of the edema of the respiratory tract;
- release of respiratory tract from sputum;
- infection control;
- elimination of dry ineffective cough.
With a mild course, treatment of pediatric bronchitis is performed on an outpatient basis. If the disease takes a severe form, the baby is hospitalized in a hospital.
How to treat children's bronchitis, the doctor decides, applying a specific therapy technique and certain medications in each individual case.
Usually the child is prescribed expectorants, which are of two kinds. One type of medicine is called ekspedoranty. Their action is aimed at stimulating the activity of bronchial mucous glands, resulting in increased sputum excretion. These drugs include Pertussin, Mukaltin, medicines based on plantain, anise, althea.
Another type of expectorant is mucolytics. These drugs can reduce the viscosity of phlegm, which leads to its free-flow. Usually prescribed Ambroxol, Bromhexine, Acetylcysteine.
If necessary, the child is credited with antibiotics or antiviral drugs. When the body temperature rises, children are given antipyretics.
As an additional method of treatment, the child is prescribed physiotherapy. The most commonly used methods have an anti-inflammatory effect:
- paraffin or mud applications on the chest and back;
- calcium electrophoresis on the thorax;
- UFO of the thorax;
- inductometry on the area between the blades;
- therapeutic respiratory gymnastics;
- chest massage;
- speleotherapy - breathing with air saturated with salt.
Children's obstructive bronchitis
Children's obstructive bronchitis is a fairly serious disease. It is characterized by spasm or narrowing of the bronchi, as a result of which mucus accumulates in the bronchi and can not go outside. This greatly complicates the respiratory processes in the body. Especially dangerous is recurrent obstructive bronchitis, which is severe and can have serious consequences for the health of the child. In addition, that the baby's lungs deteriorate, he suffers from the immune system. In particularly severe cases of this form of the disease, the risk of developing bronchial asthma is significantly increased.
Acute form of pediatric obstructive bronchitis usually develops against the background of ARVI.In addition to the general symptoms of bronchitis, the child has a so-called wheezing breath. It is explained by the fact that as a result of constriction of the bronchi, air has to literally "squeeze" through narrow apertures. Chronic form of the disease occurs with frequent exacerbations. Over time, the periods of exacerbations become more frequent, and the periods of remission are reduced.
Treatment of this form of pediatric bronchitis is primarily aimed at eliminating bronchial obstruction. To this end, the baby is prescribed inhalation with mineral water, essential oils and herbs, medicinal preparations( Lazolvan, Salbutamol, Berotek).
In severe cases, sucking mucus by electric suction or a rubber canister is performed.