Antituberculous vaccination of BCG for newborns

BCG is one of the very first vaccinations that is carried out to a newborn in the walls of the maternity hospital. It is designed to prevent and prevent the dangerous and deadly type of tuberculosis. After all, for today the given disease concerns to social illnesses, and all because with the basic its originator, mycobacterium, a society contacts daily and constantly. However, we should not forget that the vaccination of BCG does not prevent a person from becoming infected with this very bacterium. So what does it do and what reaction can parents expect after it is held? Let's understand together.

What is BCG and is it necessary?

The BCG abbreviation translated into Russian means "Calmette-Geren's bacillus".The vaccine contains various subtypes of mycobacterium Bovis, which is related to tuberculosis and contributes to the development of immunity to the disease. The composition of the vaccine for BCG vaccination has been maintained unchanged since 1921.And its effectiveness is quite obvious and hi

gh. According to statistics to date, tuberculosis takes a huge number of people under the age of 50 years. And mortality from this disease is in the first place before cardiovascular pathologies and cancer processes. And it is BCG that allows tuberculosis to flow in milder forms and be cured without serious complications, avoiding death.

Very important vaccine BCG and for newborns. After all, for children at any age, especially those newly discharged from the maternity hospital, tuberculosis carries the danger of rapid development of severe forms - meningitis and disseminated form of infection. In the absence of proper therapy, almost all people die. In this case, the BCG vaccine protects against these serious forms of the disease in 85% of vaccinated children. And even when a child is infected, he has a good chance of recovering without negative consequences and complications.

Carriers of the same mycobacterium act as sources of pathogens that enter the environment during coughing and sneezing. And since a newborn baby needs to take walks in the open air, where there are always a lot of people, the risk of infection of the child is very high. In the event that the baby is not vaccinated with BCG vaccine, there is a high likelihood of developing tuberculous meningitis, extrapulmonary tuberculosis and other dangerous conditions, in which the mortality of children is very high. Therefore, in countries with a high risk of tuberculosis, to which Russia belongs, vaccination is mandatory.

When do BCG?

As mentioned above, BCG vaccination is done in the maternity hospital on the 3rd-7th day after childbirth, in accordance with the national calendar of preventive vaccinations. This is in cases where there were no contraindications to vaccination. And then repeated revaccination, namely - at 7 and 14 years. As a rule, repeated injections are carried out only in the case of a negative Mantoux test. This technique allows to increase the immunity of the organism to the disease and increase the percentage of its resistance to the effects of mycobacteria.

In some regions where the prevalence of tuberculosis is relatively low, it may not be possible to re-vaccinate. However, there are cases when BCG is made mandatory, namely:

  • unfavorable epidemiological situation;
  • presence among relatives of patients with tuberculosis, directly in contact with the child.

In the case when contraindications and medical diversion from BCG vaccination for newborns were detected, the vaccination itself is carried out after the child's state has been normalized. At the same time, the Mantoux test is first put and if it is negative, then the injection must be performed as soon as possible. The vaccine itself after Mantoux should not be earlier than 3 days, but no later than 2 weeks. In cases where the Mantoux test is positive, the vaccine is considered useless and the procedure itself is not carried out, since the child has already been in contact with the mycobacteria.

Reaction to BCG in newborns

BZJ in neonates reaction The response to BCG in newborns can be classified as delayed. That is, the main consequences develop after a while. And many changes in this case are quite normal phenomena and processes. In most cases, the inoculation with newborns is relatively well tolerated. Consider the most common consequences of BCG:

Reddening of the place of introduction of BCG in newborns .A slight suppuration of the puncture site and redness is a normal reaction of the body to the vaccine. The redness itself can persist even after suppuration, because during this period, the formation of a scar on the skin will occur. However, it should not extend to adjacent tissues. And redness itself should be observed only during the vaccination reaction. Supposing or souring of the place of introduction of BCG. Suppuration is also considered a normal reaction. The puncture site itself should look like a pustule with a crust in the middle. Thus all surrounding tissues should be normal. If there is swelling and redness around the site of BCG, you should seek medical help.
  • Swelling of the injection site of BCG. Immediately after the injection, the skin may slightly swell, but after 2-3 days the swelling should pass by itself. And only after 1.5 months the vaccine will show the true reaction - a small abscess with a crust.
  • Inflammation of the place of introduction of BCG in newborns. Normally, the inoculation is characterized by a slight inflammation. Serious concerns should be expected in the event of swelling and redness spreading to the skin of the shoulder beyond the puncture site.
  • Itching. The site of injection of BCG may be itchy. This is due to the active process of healing of skin structures. However, to rub and comb this place should not be.
  • Temperature after BCG vaccination. The rise in temperature after BCG in newborns is a rare reaction. Usually it is not higher than 37.5 degrees.
  • In all other cases of revealed reactions, BCG should immediately seek help from a specialist to avoid serious consequences. Remember this, because the health of your baby, most importantly.