What should parents know about the physical development of preschool children?

Preschool age is a very important period in the life of every child. It is believed that the physical and mental development occurring at this time, directly affects the rest of life. It's about eating habits, attitude to health and your own body, peculiarities of character.

General changes

The structure and work of most organs in a preschool child in many ways correspond to the functioning of the adult body. The mass of the child's heart increases significantly, and the number of heartbeats decreases. At the same time, the efficiency of the functioning of the main muscle increases significantly. There is also an increase in lung capacity, the final change of teeth and the completion of the formation of brain cells.

Many parents worry that their child is growing poorly. In fact, this is quite normal. According to statistics, in children from 4 to 6 years, the growth increases by 10-15 cm, and the weight - only 3-5 kg. Accordingly, it seems that the preschool child is very thin and stretched out.

In any case, there is no cause for concern, since such changes do not affect the endurance and mobility of the child.

Features of the development of the musculoskeletal system

Preschool age is characterized by the active development of most organs and systems. This also applies to the musculoskeletal system. In this period, ossification of the cartilaginous tissue takes place. However, the child's bones remain still flexible, which increases the likelihood of injury. Therefore, you should avoid power sports.

Skeletal development is inextricably linked with the formation of muscles, joints and ligaments. With age, muscle mass increases significantly. In newborns, this parameter is 23.3%, and for a seven-year-old child - 27.2%.

It is necessary to follow the bearing of the child while walking and sitting. Experts argue that predisposition to various diseases of the spine is laid in the preschool period.

Parents should pay attention to the baby's nutrition. The diet should be balanced and rich in nutrients. Preschooler needs to be fed with food rich in protein, because it is the main building material. It is also important to consume a large number of foods with a high content of magnesium and calcium. It is these microelements that contribute to the strengthening of bone tissue.

Development of the CNS

The nervous system of preschool children is not formed completely. A feature of this age is the predominance of excitation processes. In other words, children are inattentive and inconsistent. They are not interested in doing the same tasks. The movements of children are chaotic and spontaneous in nature.

Although preschoolers are active and full of energy, their energy may suddenly disappear. Many parents notice that children in the evenings are very tired. This is because the child has a pronounced tendency to extremes: extreme fatigue and too active games. Excessive activity can lead to increased excitability of the nervous system, so it is very important to alternate quiet activities and moving games. At the same time, parents should understand that for a rest the child will have 10-15 minutes.


Precautionary measures In preschool children, most of the parameters of the body correspond to the level of development of organs and systems of an adult. Despite this, parents should remember that their child is still a child who has limited opportunities and certain anatomical features. Accordingly, active growing up is not an occasion to overload the child.

Some parents give four-year-olds to professional sports, not thinking about whether the child is ready for such a load. In fact, in pre-school age, more simple exercises are useful. This is very important, because due to regular motor activity, mental development stimulates. Children from 4 to 6 years old are worthy of such sports:

  • athletics;
  • tennis;
  • orienteering;
  • swimming;
  • gymnastics.

Preschool children need special care. They have an accelerated metabolism, so it is very important to monitor their nutrition. In addition, the family should enjoy a favorable atmosphere, which contributes to the normal development of the nervous system. The child will grow up to be balanced, able to relax and concentrate.

Preschool age is ideal for improving mental and physical development, which is of particular importance. So, in school children are waiting for increased loads, which need to be prepared. Otherwise, there may be a deterioration in health or poor performance.

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