The first three years in the life of a child - a period of rapid development. Until recently, the kid stubbornly tried to roll over on his stomach, and now he rushes around the room and, substituting his high chair, gets to the table and shelves of cabinets. Every day, more and more character traits appear, the child begins to sense the movement of time, reveals the properties of objects and phenomena. What are the characteristics of the development of young children and how to affect them?
Features of development up to the year
During the first year of life, the mobility of the child develops most: he, as a rule, no longer crawls, but walks around freely and with pleasure explores everything that falls under his arms. In these studies, he can show independence, but he does not like to remain alone.
By the way, the kid's pens are the most active method of knowing the world. Children grab large and small objects, roll them, throw them, thrust their fingers into the holes. All these impressions st
The child can find the right object, and if you praise him, he will show a great joy. He is already able to remember, including people who come to visit you, and parting with a pen.
By the year the rudiments of the first speech are formed - babbling is made into words, although almost no one understands them. The child himself begins to learn more and more words, for example, "on", "hold", "mother", "dad".
The development of young children at this stage requires the following exercises:
- Study with the baby body parts - show him where the nose, ears, eyes, and teach him to show them on his own.
- Most often say the name of the items, and if the thing is dangerous, try to explain it to the child. For example, babies quickly realize that a cup of tea is hot and it's unpleasant to touch it with your hands.
- Take away things that can not be given to the child and gradually give the baby freedom of movement. But do not leave him alone for long.
Features of development up to 2 years
This stage is closely connected with the formation of character. The child develops the concepts of empathy, love, affection, anger, and social expressions are expressed. The kid already walks well without support, and almost nothing prevents him from actively exploring this vast world.
During this period the child imitates adults, improves their speech, understands and pronounces words, can even add simple sentences or copy intonation. But much more he is able to learn from his peers - gait, gestures, skills.
For the child does not present a problem to find a familiar picture in books or point to an animal on the street, dip a cracker into milk, unwrap the wrapper, pull off the clothes, build a tower of cubes, collect a pyramid, draw a line or circle.
By the end of the second year, the child pronounces 20-50 understandable words, some of them from several syllables, he can make sentences, he likes unusual and complicated words, although he pronounces them with errors.
Assistance in the development of young children during this period may include the following:
- Explain often different concepts in simple terms.
- Offer your baby a choice, for example, an apple or a banana, give the opportunity to make a decision yourself.
- Draw and learn to distinguish colors, connect games to cubes, pyramids.
- Allow the child to move furniture and objects.
- Play with the baby in ordering order - give him a mop, a rag to wipe the dust, let him carry the toys to the place.
- Teach your child to recognize facial expressions.
- Gradually designate for the baby the concept of "impossible", "someone else's".
Features of development up to 3 years
That's the time when the child will learn to control his desires and needs - now you can form the skills of correct behavior. This will be facilitated by the development of vocabulary, which increases much faster than in the previous two years, because now the baby can determine the relationships between objects, compare them, evaluate functions. The speech of adults for the child sounds differently - now he understands the meaning of what has been said.
By three years the child distinguishes the present moment, the past and the future. Communication with other people, especially peers, is of great value. At this time, children begin to practice role-playing games and acquire social communication skills.
It should be remembered that the period of early development to 3-4 years has a characteristic feature - the child's thinking is visual-effectual. In other words, the kid is attracted to objects and practical interaction with them: he assorts and collects toys, closes and opens doors, draws, smears paints, spills and collects small things. Of course, all this is quite difficult to clean up for a kid, but it should be remembered that it is very important for him to study the properties of objects in this way.
After 3-4 years, thinking will become visually-figurative, and then the child will be able to recreate objects in his imagination, play without toys and easily imagine what the adult is talking about.
During this period, parents should do the following:
- Give the child more freedom in communicating with peers.
- Encourage the knowledge of the world through real manipulations with toys and objects, because at an early age the kid "thinks with his hands".
- Do not restrict the child's living space.
- Playing with the baby, comment on his and his actions.
The choice of games and toys
Strangely enough, but an ordinary spoon can be of more interest to the child than an expensive interactive toy. The kid actively learns how to act with guns. Give him the opportunity to play with spoons, cups, combs, pencils, scoops and scapulas, brooms and rakes, phone, wallet, watch, dishes, etc.
To develop visual-efficient thinking, games with homogeneous objects of different sizes and shapes will be useful - cubes, balls, pyramids, nesting dolls, large puzzles, little tables with holes. So the child will develop a perception of color, shapes and other simple properties.
To stimulate cognitive activity, get secret boxes, sprays, molds, in a word, benefits that provide a field for experiments.
Finally, for physical development it will be useful to purchase balls of different diameters, swings, a Swedish wall, rugs with surfaces of different textures, hoops, etc.
In conclusion, I would like to recall that the normal development of young children is that they actively explore the environment, adapt to it, find ways to interact. And in fact, all that parents need to do is give the child as much freedom as possible, shielding him from potential dangers at home and on the street, watching him and taking an active part in his games.