If in the first months of life the basis of the diet was breast milk, and the child was only acquainted with new products, then after a year the baby begins to adapt actively to the eating habits of the family. Tom helps the first milk teeth, which stimulate interest in chewing food, increased activity of digestive enzymes, as well as newly acquired taste preferences. What should be the correct diet of a child in a year?
Features of lactation in the mother
With preserved lactemia, breast milk after a year changes its composition. It ceases to be the main source of nutrition, but it remains the main factor in maintaining immunity.
During this period the child receives approximately 500 ml of breast milk per day and according to different data covers the following needs:
- in protein - by 43%;
- in calcium - by 35%;
- in vitamin A - by 75%;
- in vitamin B12 - by 94%;
- in vitamin C - by 60%.
As the composition of milk for each mother is different, these figures may vary.
In accordance with the needs of the child in milk, the number of immunoglobulins, T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, hormones, lipids necessary for the development of the nervous and immune systems increases. Milk becomes more fat and is still easily digested.
Some mothers breastfeed during the day, but most save only morning and night feeding, and give the baby a chest before bed. According to different experts, night feeding serves as a kind of prevention of caries, because they contain antibodies that inhibit the growth of staphylococcus. Unfortunately, we can not say the same about juices and mixtures, the use of which at night, on the contrary, increases the risk of caries due to the fact that it shifts the acid-base balance.
Amount of food and multiplicity of receptions
By one-year age, as a rule, a natural mode of food intake is formed. In the first half of the year, the baby is usually on five meals a day. In the second half of the year it can be transferred to feeding in a four-hour regime at intervals of 3.5-4 hours. If the baby is not ready for such a long break between meals, do not force him to do this.
Advocates of a clear diet recommend that the eating schedule be kept at least within half an hour. Children with reduced appetite are not recommended to have snacks between meals.
A one-year-old child consumes about 4 g of protein, the same amount of fat and 16 g of carbohydrates per day for each kilogram of body weight. At this age, the daily calorific value should be about 1300 calories, and the daily volume of food - 1000-1200 ml. If you distribute it during the day, then for breakfast and dinner should account for 25% of the total, for lunch - 35%, and for lunch - 15%.
Milk and dairy products
This category of products forms the basis of a child's diet per year. Thanks to milk and dairy products, the needs for calcium, B vitamins and protein are being filled.
But sweet yogurt, kefir and milk drinks from the supermarket should prefer a modest menu of children's dairy cuisine, specially adapted for the early age, as these products do not contain preservatives, sucrose, flavors, dyes and other unwanted additives. Of course, such products are not stored for long, but it has a beneficial effect on the intestinal flora of the baby.
Baby can already give up to 70 grams of cottage cheese per day or 140 grams a day. Cottage cheese can be both a mono-product, and be a part of casseroles, puddings or cheese cakes. In addition, cheese is added to pasta, and butter is added to cereal. After a year, you can use low-fat sour cream for filling the first dishes and cream in the sauces.
Groats and bakery products
The child's diet must include cereals. This is best suited to:
As the child only gets used to swallowing solid food, it will be easiest for him to cope with the "instant" porridge with a uniform consistency. You can either grind the croup yourself, or use ready-made baby porridge, including multi-grain.
In the menu you can include pasta as a side dish or additive to the soup. But since these are easily assimilated carbohydrates, they should be present in the diet no more than twice a week.
Babies at one-year-old age willingly eat bread. But up to one and a half years it is better to confine yourself to a white variety, because it is easier to digest. In a day, you can consume no more than 100 g of such a product.
Fruits and vegetables
Fruit and berry menu is usually very popular with children, but mothers should carefully introduce each new product, carefully monitoring the reaction of the baby. During this period, the following fruits are usually added to the diet: strawberry, kiwi, cherry, cherry, apricot, peach, gooseberry, currant, sea buckthorn, raspberry, cranberries, blueberries, citrus fruits.
If berries have a dense peel, they are crushed in a puree. Large and juicy fruits are offered in slices. Exotic fruits are given in extremely limited quantities. In total, a child can give 200-250 g of fruit daily, and also supplement the diet with 100 ml of fruit juice.
Vegetables are used much more actively. The diet of the child per year includes beets, potatoes, turnips, tomatoes. In the menu, beans are added, but in small amounts and crushed to the state of puree. Vegetables are served in soups, side dishes, in boiled and stewed form - first crushed, then, in large pieces.
Meat, fish and eggs
The child's diet per year, as a rule, contains a considerable list of meat products - steam cutlets, meatballs, meatballs, meat soufflé.But it's still too early to give meat in small pieces. You can use lean beef, veal, pork, rabbit meat, as well as turkey, chicken, and offal. Fish is present in the diet twice a week for about 30-40 g as a substitute for meat dishes.
With regard to eggs, it is permissible for a child to give both chicken and quail eggs, although the latter contain more protein and cholesterol. Eggs are served either in a hard-boiled form or in omelets on milk.
Drinks and sweet
At one-year-old age, a child can be given bottled water for baby food, fruit and vegetable juices, compotes, tea and decoctions of chamomile, fennel, mint. Carbonated drinks, including mineral water, should not be present in the diet for up to three years.
Many mothers love to sweeten the baby's food. If you have such a habit, try to replace sucrose with fructose, because when you use it there are not so high changes in blood glucose level.
Each family has its own individual eating habits, and the child eventually adapts to them. Therefore, our recommendations are not strict. However, using them, you can safely diversify the diet of your baby.