What is special about preterm infants?

Most young parents panic if their baby was born prematurely. They experience not only the health and physical condition of their child, but also for his further mental and mental development. Therefore, in this article, we will consider what is special about newborns born before the term.

Which children are considered prematurity?

Doctors call premature babies, who were born between the 28th and 37th week of pregnancy. In most cases, the height of such a child varies between 35-46 cm, and weight - 1-2.5 kg.

Physiological features of .Premature babies differ from babies born in time not only by their small size, but also by other features:

  • parietal and frontal tubercles are enlarged;
  • facial skull is much smaller than cerebral;
  • front fontanelle of large size;
  • no subcutaneous fat layer;
  • ears are soft and easily deformable;
  • on the body, there is an increase in pushrod hair;
  • feet shorter.

Functional features of .Children born before the term, all systems and organs a

re still underdeveloped, especially in the central nervous system. Often such children have arrhythmia of the respiration, which can lead to respiratory arrest and death. At a full-term baby, the lungs straighten out with the first cry and remain in this state, and in the premature baby, the lungs that have been disfigured can fall back again. Due to the underdevelopment of the digestive system and the lack of enzymes necessary for digesting food, the child often has abdominal pain, constipation, regurgitation and vomiting. Unformed thermoregulation system leads to the fact that premature babies very quickly and easily overheat or supercooled.

Development of

If the baby was born before the term, but overall he is healthy, then he will develop at a rapid pace, trying to catch up on the performance of his peers. According to statistics, children born with a weight of 1.5 to 2 kg, to three months of doubling their weight, and by the year increase it 4-6 times. Also, the growth of the child also intensively takes place, in the first year of life the premature baby grows by 27-38 cm, and reaches 70-77 cm by the age of one year. The head circumference by the half-year is increased by 1-4 cm, and by 12 months by another 0.5-1 see

Psychic .If at birth a child weighed less than 2 kg, then he will have a lag in the psychomotor development. And if the kid does not receive proper care or will often get sick, then the backlog will be aggravated.

Activity and voltage of .In the first two months of their life, premature babies sleep almost all the time, they quickly get tired and move little. After this time, the activity of the baby is increased, and with it the tension of the limbs increases. Fingers of the breastbone are almost always compressed into a fist, they can hardly be opened. To relieve tension, it is necessary to carry out special exercises with the child.

Health .Babies, born before the term and lagging behind their peers in development, have weak immunity and often get sick. Especially they are predisposed to otitis, intestinal disorders, respiratory infections.

Underdevelopment of the nervous system affects the behavior of the child: sometimes he sleeps for a long time, and sometimes he suddenly wakes up screaming, shudders and frightened at the inclusion of light or sharp sounds, loud conversations of others.


Premature babies immediately after birth are placed in a special room in which the optimal conditions for them are created. Particularly heavy babies are in cuvies. In the early days, young moms can only watch their crumbs through the glass wall of the room. If the condition of the newborn is satisfactory, after a few days the doctors allow the woman to take the baby in her arms, and recommend that you communicate with him as much as possible: talk, sing songs, stroke the backrest, pens, legs. Such emotional contact contributes to a faster mental and physical development of the child. Even if the baby does not react particularly to Mama's actions, this does not mean that he does not feel anything and does not notice, he just does not have enough strength to show his reaction. After 3-5 weeks of constant communication with the child, the woman will see the first result of her efforts.

A premature baby will develop faster if stimulated. To do this, you can hang bright toys over his crib, listen to the recording of his family's voices or quiet quiet music.


Standard of conduct The behavior of premature babies is not the same as that of their peers. They quickly become tired and hard to concentrate, so when dealing with such a baby, you need to alternate exercises that require mental effort, with physical exercises or moving games. Each task should be divided into several stages, and consistently monitor their implementation. If the child who was born before the time lags behind the peers in development, then he needs regular observation from the psychologist.

Disturbing symptoms of

Parents should not panic if their baby is often naughty, he has signs of apathy and lethargy. Premature babies can thus react to any changes in the world around them, for example, to change the weather.

However, there are signs that the premature baby is not all right:

  • painful reaction, crying, screaming, convulsions at the sound or touch of an adult in a baby older than 1,5-2 months;
  • lack of a retaliatory look in a baby older than 2 months if he has normal vision.

These symptoms may indicate a mental illness such as early childhood autism. Many deeply premature babies are at risk. Therefore, if you notice that your baby has signs of illness, immediately consult a doctor, psychiatrist or psychologist for advice.

Discuss with the doctors the state of your child, do not hesitate to ask them questions, if something is not clear, mom should be aware of what is happening with her baby. Prematurity is not a disease, many children who were born before the term, with due care grow healthy and do not lag behind their peers in development.

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