The structure of the skin of newborn infants and adults is strikingly different. Babies have thin skin integuments with immature structure and insufficient pH.All these factors make the baby's skin more permeable and susceptible to infections. Therefore, the most characteristic ailment of an early age is diaper rash. What are diaper rash in newborns, and what are the methods for their treatment and prevention?
Causes of diaper rash
The tender and smooth skin of the baby has a weak resistance to the action of aggressive environmental factors. This is, in a way, a protective mechanism, provided by nature itself. The matter is that after sterile intrauterine conditions the child gets into the world of hostile and unfamiliar antigens. If his immune system( part of which is also the skin) was perfect, then her reaction to such an abundance of stimuli would be incompatible with life.
Skin immunity of the baby will grow stronger with time. But until then, aggressive factors of the external environment
Prolonged contact with moisture. At a suitable temperature and humidity, the newborn baby feels comfortable without clothes. But the conditions of modern life are such that babies have to be wrapped in diapers and put on a diaper. At the same time, the baby's integuments for a while touch the urine and the stool, overheat, get wet. A warm and moist environment, which is formed on the surface of the skin, hidden by a diaper, is ideal for the reproduction of bacteria and fungi. A decomposition of feces produces caustic ammonia. And if the diaper is not changed regularly enough, and after changing it, short air baths are not enough, very soon on the skin of the perineum there are diaper rash.
Reaction to a diaper. Many manufacturers include fragrances in the production of hygiene products. This improves the appearance and smell of the product, but, unfortunately, can cause an allergic reaction to the skin of the baby. Therefore, sometimes it is better to try a few brands of diapers, and if the production of any firm causes diaper rash, it is worth abandoning it.
Washing powders. Baby clothes should be washed with a special baby powder or soap, since the surfactants and odorants of conventional products can cause irritation on the skin.
Friction. Mechanical stimulus can bring as much harm as allergens and bacteria. In such cases, diaper rash may occur in places where the diaper or clothing is snug.
Neurological disorders in the newborn are inflammation spots on the skin, which are most often localized in the area of folds: inguinal, interannual, axillary, cervical, ear, and also in the lower abdomen.
Depending on the severity of the symptoms, three degrees of intertrigo are identified:
- I degree .There is a slight reddening of the skin without compromising its integrity.
- II degree .The areas of diaper rashry acquire a bright red color, there are many microcracks. At this stage, it is possible to attach a bacterial infection, which provokes the appearance of pustules and rashes.
- III degree .There is pronounced hyperemia, wetting cracks are formed, sometimes with areas of exfoliation of the epidermis. Attachment of a fungal or bacterial infection can trigger the development of microbial eczema. Foci of inflammation itch, give the child pain, burning, cause anxiety, crying. The child's fever rises, appetite and sleep worsen.
Than to treat?
First of all, parents need to assess the severity of the ailment. With diaper rash I degree can be managed independently and sometimes even without special treatment. In the case of diaper rashes II and III degree, it is not worth spending time and consulting with friends on the issue, than treating diaper rash in a newborn - you need to visit a pediatric dermatologist as soon as possible.
Treatment of diaper rash I degree is a hygienic measure. Mom should follow the following rules:
- ensure that the baby wears a diaper for no more than 3 hours in a row;
- wash the baby after each diaper change or diaper;
- after washing, dry the skin with a towel with lightly soaking movements, leave the baby naked for 10-20 minutes and then swirl it.
To remove irritation, you can also use a special diaper cream. But the greatest effect is still the air baths.
If diaper rash is caused by an allergic reaction to the diaper - you need to change the brand. In the event that the areas of inflammation tend to spread, the appearance of cracks, vesicles and pustules, it is urgent to consult a doctor.
Treatment of diaper rash of the second degree includes all the procedures described, but for the prescription of a pediatric dermatologist, the baby's skin is additionally treated with special medicinal powders. As a rule, these are products containing zinc oxide or talc, and having a drying effect. In addition, baths with a weak solution of potassium permanganate or broth of oak bark are recommended. If diaper rash is combined with exudative-catarrhal diathesis, the doctor may prescribe desensitizing drugs.
Treatment of diaper rash of the third degree , as a rule, is long and complex. The affected skin at this stage no longer absorbs cream and oils - cosmetics leave a film on the surface, further exacerbating the pain and discomfort of the baby, so their use is strictly prohibited. Initially, lotions with silver nitrate or tannin, which are made according to the prescription in the pharmacy, are prescribed. After the improvement of the condition, the treatment of diaper rash will be the same as in case of the second degree of lesion.
Parents should be aware that the initial stages of diaper rash are easy to treat. It is enough to adjust the methods of hygiene - and the baby will again be healthy and calm. To prevent the appearance of diaper rash, do not forget to change diapers in time and alternate disposable products with tissue and gauze. Do not leave the baby in a dirty diaper if it has emptied the intestines. Often arrange air baths, periodically bathe the child in a decoction of chamomile or a weak solution of potassium permanganate. Protect the baby from contact with household chemicals. Observing all these simple measures, you can protect your child from the appearance of diaper rash.