Birthmarks are common, they come in many colors, shapes and sizes. According to its name, the spots appear on the body of the baby immediately after birth or during the first year of life. Are birthmarks on the baby's skin a cause for concern?
What is it?
Nevuses( in common people "birthmarks") - focal skin changes, which are excessive development or underdevelopment of one or several components of the structure of the skin( epidermis, dermis or subcutaneous tissue).
Birthmarks can be yellowish-brown, flesh-colored or black, but are more often brown in color. The color of the stain depends on the depth on which the pigment melanin is in the skin.
Also, nevi are different in form:
- towering above the skin level;
- are flat;
- are smooth;
- with hair;
- with warts;
- with a wide base.
The number of nevi on the skin of a child can be from a few pieces to several hundred, and in size - from 0.5 mm to 15-25 cm in diameter.
What species are there?
Pigmented spots .One of the most common types of nevi. They are absolutely painless to the touch. Spots have a different consistency, can be as soft or very dense. It is important to pay attention to the fact that in a normal state, the pigmented spots do not show signs of inflammation, redness or swelling.
The main types of pigmented spots include:
- giant pigment nevus( differs symmetrically on both sides of the body, less often on one side, occupies a large area, abundantly covered with hairs);
- blue nevus( the main distinguishing feature is the gray-blue coloration, mainly located on the face or hands);
- halo-nevus or rim( it resembles a dark brown knot surrounded by a wide rim of light skin);
- Mongolian spot( similar in appearance to a bruise, usually located in the region of the sacrum, buttocks, or lateral surface of the thighs).
Hemangiomas .Another common type of birthmarks. This is a nevi consisting of a vascular tissue. Since hemangiomas are formed from deep layers of the skin, they also involve nerve endings in their formation. Therefore, they differ in some pain or sensitivity in some cases. Such birthmarks are formed on the child's body before birth. The most common types:
- flat hemangiomas( the most common variety, slightly elevated above the skin, consist of small vessels);
- stellate angiomas( located on the face and neck, the central bright red dot diverges into small arterial vessels, like a star with rays);
- tuberous-cavernous, or cavernous, hemangiomas( composed of blood-filled cavities delimited by septa from connective tissue, often painful, with pressure giving a feeling of pulsation);
- strawberry hemangiomas( flat form, ruby formations with clearly defined boundaries).
Is it dangerous?
Generally birthmarks are not dangerous, they represent only a small cosmetic defect. But the doctor can give an unequivocal answer individually.
Babies, on whose skin the birthmarks of large sizes( 10 mm and more) are located, an abundant tan is not recommended. Pigmented spots and hemangiomas are neoplasms, so when exposed to ultraviolet radiation there is a risk of degeneration into poor-quality formations. This is very dangerous for the health of the child.
It is also not recommended to expose the stain to permanent irritation with clothing. This can cause it to grow or damage with subsequent infection.
How to treat?
To designate the method and timing of treatment, if the birthmark was found to be dangerous, only the oncologist can after the examination and examination. The decisive factors in this matter: the type of hemangioma, its location, size, growth rate and the general condition of the child.
Small nevi are removed entirely by surgical method. The operation is not complicated and not dangerous. Some experts recommend not to rush and remove moles, because in the development of the child and the formation of the circulatory system, small hemangiomas can disappear themselves. There is also an opposite opinion, it is that intervention at an early stage allows you to more effectively get rid of some types of spots. Therefore, you should consult a few specialists.
Birthmarks of large sizes and located on the face, treated non-surgically:
- by exposure to low temperatures or cryotherapy;
- by injection of certain chemicals;
The cold is treated with superficial hemangiomas in open areas of the body. After the procedure, there is an inflammatory reaction, but it completely disappears in 1-2 weeks. In 93% of cases, treatment is effective and only a small, almost invisible hem remains from the hemangioma.
Laser treatment of stimulates the overgrowth of the vessels that make up the hemangioma, which leads to its disappearance. The laser beam directly affects the vessels, without harming the skin. Given the size and depth of the nevus location, select the appropriate type of laser beam. The procedure is not dangerous and does not cause painful sensations. After the operation, only a small swelling may appear, but it passes very quickly. To completely get rid of the stain, you need 4-8 sessions with an interval of a month.
If your parents discover any kind of education on the body of the baby, you should pay attention to the doctor. Even if the mole does not cause fear, you should observe its condition, you can for convenience put its outlines on the tracing paper. In case of manifestation of any changes( changes in the structure, the appearance of an inflammatory reaction, additional rashes, intensification of the color intensity), it is necessary to consult an oncologist.