The existing classification of speech sounds and their correspondence to letters are subject to strict rules. The ability to distinguish pronounced sounds, to relate them to a certain group is the basis for teaching reading and literate writing.
Sounds and letters
At the very beginning of mastering the secrets of the language it is necessary to learn to clearly distinguish sounds from letters. There is an opinion that it is quite easy to do this. But experience shows that the issue causes great difficulties not only for younger schoolchildren, but also graduates of educational institutions. Special knowledge is required to solve the problem.
This is due to the fact that the number of sounds and letters in Russian does not match. One letter can call different sounds. In other cases, the same sound is indicated by different letters. This phenomenon applies to all sounds of the language, but vowels and sounds require special attention.
A letter is a sign that you can use to record recorded
Sound is an indivisible unit of spoken language. It is formed due to the work of the speech apparatus. The perception of sounds is performed by the organs of hearing.
It is much more difficult to answer the question about the quantitative composition of speech sounds. Modern scientific linguists have not yet reached a consensus on this matter. However, the statement that oral speech has appeared much earlier than written, is unquestionable to no one.
Signs of vowels
In a comparative quantitative characteristic with consonant vowels and sounds in Russian are in the minority - there are, respectively, ten( a, i, o, e, y, y, o, e, u, u) and sixa, o, y, e, u, u).The source of vowel sounds is the voice with total absence of noise - this is their first and most important sign.
The second feature is that when a vowel sound is pronounced, the air stream leaves the larynx and oral cavity freely, without encountering obstructions. Her movement is not impeded by teeth, lips, tongue.
Vowel sound and letter. Their functions in the speech
The most important function of vowels and letters in the language is the syllabic. The calculation of syllables in a word must begin with the definition of the number of vowels in it. The syllable can only include a vowel or a vowel in combination with consonants. There is no other composition of the syllable in the Russian language. It is inadmissible to have two or more vowels in one syllable.
As well as consonant sounds, vowels themselves do not carry a semantic load in the word. They are designed to form or distinguish among themselves morphemes, whole words.
A vowel sound standing in a position after a consonant indicates the nature of its pronunciation. Depending on which vowel follows after the consonant, it can sound firmly or gently.
Letters e, e, w, i, and are special vowels. Soft sounds in words appear due to the work of the listed letters and ь.It is they who indicate that the preceding consonant should sound gently( flame, village, flight, risk).
The opposite group consists of other vowels. Solid sounds in the sounding speech appear next to the vowels a, o, y, s, e. They give the "command" to the previous consonant, and it begins to sound firmly( table, meadow, baby, peer).
When answering a question about how many vowels sounds in the Russian language, it is necessary to remember about such letters as I, e, e, yu. There are certain features of the use of these letters. Their pronunciation, sound depends on the function they are called upon to perform in a particular word.
First, vowels can designate two sounds if they occupy the position:
- at the beginning of the word( yama, yula, tree, hedgehog);
- after a vowel( my, beautiful);
- after separating signs( announcement, blizzard).
Secondly, iotated vowels can denote one of the vowel sounds( a, y, o, e) and the softness of the previous consonant( all, softly, love).
Third, the letters e, e, w standing after unpaired softness-soft consonants denote vowel sounds( e, o, y), without affecting the characteristics of the sound ahead( parachute, six, silk).
Vowels under stress
Regardless of how many vowels there are in the word, there can only be one percussion. In Russian, under stress, there are six vowel sounds, but they are denoted by ten letters.
The sound and can form the letters and I ( small, crumpled).
The sound about in different cases corresponds to the letters about, ё ( wave, led).
For sound, uses the letters y, y ( storm, iron).
The sound of the can be indicated by the letters s, and ( soap, tire).
The letter and always corresponds to the sound of and ( saw, lil).
The sound e is denoted by the letters e, e ( mayor, shore).
Voidless position of a vowel
The pronunciation of an unstressed syllable differs significantly from a percussive one. This is due to the work of the organs of speech, which at this moment do not produce much muscular tension. As a result, the vowel sound in an unstressed position sounds more concisely, with a different timbre.
In Russian, only four vowels are distinguished in unstressed syllables - and, a, y, s, which are denoted by all ten letters. The same unstressed sound can be indicated in different letters. This explains the difficulties associated with writing an unstressed vowel in different parts of the word.
Thus, an unstressed vowel in a word is a signal about the presence of a spelling in it. They are divided into several categories:
- with interlaces.
For the correct spelling of the word, it is important to determine which of the listed categories includes the unstressed vowel, and in accordance with this, select the algorithm of actions.