The years of the reign of Ivan 3 were special for Russia: the son of the blind king Vasily the Second, the Dark One, managed to begin the most important process of centralization - the unification of Russian land around Moscow.
Associations of principalities or "collecting land"
Ivan III began to rule the state even with his father - Vasily II himself put his son to reign along with him, and even the mint of the Moscow prince minted the inscription "obposdari all Russia".Moreover, the old prince during his lifetime made a testament, according to which he left the throne and the main part of the state lands to his son Ivan, and the rest, more distant from Moscow, to other sons. Ivan Vasilyevich ascended the throne in 1462.The rule of Ivan 3 was marked by the annexation of Ryazan, Dmitrov, Yaroslavl, Tver principalities, and centralization was peaceful. Only the Novgorod lands sought independence and did not want to depend on Moscow. As a result, Ivan III organized a cruel conquest campai
Strengthening the role of the nobility
The board of Ivan 3 was aimed at strengthening the role of the nobility and the noble army. To increase the status of landlords, a ban was introduced on the transfer of peasants from one master to another. Only a week before St. George's Day and a week after this autumn holiday( November 26) gave the peasants the right to change the landowner.
Ivan III and Golden Horde
One of the most important events of state significance, which marked the reign of Ivan 3, was the refusal to pay tribute to the Khan of the Golden Horde - standing on the Ugra put an end to relations between Russia and the Horde, the Russian lands were freed from oppression. The grateful Russian people immediately gave Ivan III the nickname "Saint."
Reform of the legal system
Centralization of land and obtaining independence required reforms in the legal system - the law should be one for all. In 1479, the Code of Law was introduced, which united the Russian Truth, the Pskov Judicial Charter, the Charter of the Belozersk and Dvina lands, as well as the decrees and orders of the prince. Here, the command and control system is born.
Heresy of the Judaizers
Deeply believing Ivan III sought not only to restore the unity of the Russian lands, but also to restore the true Orthodox faith, which weakened somewhat during the years of the Tatar-Mongol yoke. Among the people there were many superstitions, conspiracies, conspiracies, and medicine began to practice witchcraft. Such a phenomenon as the "heresy of the Judaizers" has become a tremendous stimulus for the revival of theological enlightenment. Its founder is the Jew Zacharias from Kiev, who drew several priests to the Jewish faith. Heresy so deeply took root that even the Prince of Kiev appointed Metropolitan Zosima - a hidden heretic. In 1490 at the Cathedral about a dozen clergymen were betrayed and excommunicated from the church. This did not bring results, so 14 years later, in 1504, another cathedral was held, as a result of which several heretics were executed, and others were expelled in closed monasteries. Moreover, each week, the heretics were read anathema.
Architecture and Literature
The construction of the Assumption and Annunciation cathedrals, the Faceted Chamber, the buildings of the Kremlin and other church buildings contributed to the strengthening of faith. Fortress buildings in almost all major cities have been restored or rebuilt.
Results of the reign of Ivan 3
Under Ivan III, not only the unification of Russian lands and the strengthening of the Orthodox faith began, but also the formation of state ideology: a coat of arms - a two-headed eagle - and the title of Grand Duke enumerating all the lands ruled by the prince. Historians say that during this period this title is sometimes replaced by the word "king".The reign of Ivan 3 served as the beginning for the formation of state ideology, which developed over a period of hundreds of years, so the "Great" Ivan III was rightly nicknamed.