In this article, we will talk about the sound and letter analysis of the word. For this, let us consider the main components of this analysis.
To make the correct sound-and-letter analysis of a word, you need to know some sections of the modern Russian language, such as phonetics and orthoepia, and also have the notion of transcription and the relationship between sounds and letters.
Phonetics( from Greek Phone - sound) is a field of the science of language that studies the sounds and letters of speech.
The main subject of the study of phonetics are sounds - the smallest units of the speech stream, of which the language consists of words.
The speech sounds on the letter are denoted as [a], [c], [d '], [g], [and], [m], [n].
Separate sounds, in contrast to words and sentences, do not matter( [o], [y], [n], [c], [d], [and], [k], [m]),but from them there are words and their significant parts.
Sounds and letters form the outer, voice cover of words and thus make it
Words are divided by the number of sounds they are created from, the set of these sounds and their sequence.
The sound system of the Russian language has 43 sounds: 37 consonants and 6 vowels.
How sounds sound
The sounds of the tongue arise with the help of a voice device, which includes the oral and nasal cavities, the larynx with vocal cords, as well as lips, tongue, teeth and palate.
By the way of creation, Russian sounds and letters are broken into vowels and consonants.
Vowel sounds are sounds that arise through the voice. In the pronunciation of vowel sounds, the air stream, emerging from the lungs and passing through the larynx, causes vibration of closed tight vocal cords.
Consonant sounds are sounds produced by voice and noise or only noise. When a consonant sound is pronounced, the vocal cords can be in tension and vibrate under the pressure of an air jet, forming a musical tone( voice), and can be relaxed and freely flow through expired air.
All words are divided into syllables. A syllable is the smallest spoken unit. A syllable can be formed from one or more sounds, one of which is necessarily a vowel. Vowel sounds act as syllabic( constituents) and form the vertex of the syllable. The number of vowels in a word determines the number of syllables in it. Consonants are not syllabic.
Orthoepia( from Latin Orthos - straight, regular, smooth and Epos - word, speech) is the area of the science of language, studying the norms of pronunciation and the rules of stress.
In order for the sound-alphabetic analysis of the word to be done correctly, it is necessary to know certain features of the pronunciation of sounds.
Pronunciation of vowel sounds
Vowels in Russian on stressed positions sound clear and distinct.
Vowels [s], [and], [y] in unstressed syllables are also clearly and clearly pronounced.
Impersonal [e] in pronunciation approaches [s]( [shy] stand ), as well as unstressed [e] approaches [and].
The unmanned sound [o], like the drum, is also pronounced loudly, turning into [a]: station - in [a] kzal .
Pronunciation of consonant sounds
In verb forms of the singular and plural of the 3rd person of the present tense, the combination is pronounced as [ц ']: approaching - approaching [ц'] я.
The voiced consonants [b], [d], [c], [g], [g], [s] before the vowels, as a rule, retain their voicedness.
Voiced consonants in the middle of the word before the deaf and at the end of the word are stunned: plug - pro [n] ka , enemy-to [AS] .
In some words, the sound [g] is pronounced as [x]: soft - me [x] cue.
If the whistling consonant [s] is in front of the hissing [w] and [h], it is pronounced like a deaf sibilant [w]: happiness - [nu] aste.
The consonant combinations [hh], [dh] and [tsh], [ds], correspond to whistling sounds [h '], [q]: pilot-le [h'] ik .
Sonorous consonants [l], [m], [n], [p], [d], which do not have any deaf matches, are usually pronounced in the same way as they are written.
In order for the sound-alphabetic analysis of a word to be correct, it is necessary to know the basic rules of recording phonetic transcription.
Transcription( from Latin Transcriptio-rewriting) is a special way of recording sounds in full accordance with their sound.
The phonetic alphabet is a system of letters and additional signs, with which a live language is recorded.
Basic rules for recording phonetic transcriptions:
- soft and solid character, as well as the letters i, y, e, i are not used in transcription;
- each sound corresponds to a separate transcription letter( sometimes together with auxiliary notation);
- in each word, which is written in the form of phonetic transcription, if it has more than one syllable, is stressed;
- does not use large letters in the transcription, all words are written with a lowercase letter.
The value between letters and with
sounds The majority of the letters correspond to one sound. However, the letter can transmit and 2 sounds, for example:
1. The letter ni transmits a combination of 2 sounds [w] + [h].
2. The letter e always means two sounds [d] and [o].
3. The letters i, u, e can transmit one sound - [a], [y], [e] when used to denote the softness of consonants, as well as two sounds when performing:
- at the very beginning of the word;
- at the beginning of the syllable after a vowel;
- for hard and soft signs.
Softness of consonant sounds is transmitted using the letters , and, e .
The hardness of consonant sounds on the letter is not reflected, and for a separate pronunciation a solid sign is used.
A special circuit is used to parse a word.
Sound and literal analysis of the word
The application of word analysis helps to reveal its internal structure and organization.
The parse scheme is as follows:
- Write down the words.
- Specify the number of letters in it, name each letter.
- Divide the word into syllables, give each syllable a characteristic.
- Record a word with phonetic transcription, indicate how many sounds it has, every sound is called. If the number of sounds and letters does not match, explain why.
- Perform a phonetic analysis, in order to record each sound and giving it a characteristic.
- Analyze the word from the point of view of phonetic changes: indicate the possibility of alternating or simplifying groups of consonant sounds.
Let's make a sound-letter analysis of the word:
Magic - [mage] - 3 syllables, 5 letters, 6 sounds;
m [m] - sound ringing, hard, unpaired, consonant;
a [a] - sound percussion, vowel;
g [g] - sound ringing, soft, consonant;
and [and] - sound unstressed, vowel;
I mean two sounds:
- [i] - sound ringing, soft, consonant;
- [a] - sound unstressed, vowel.