What is an application in Russian, you ask? If one word is something like an explanatory note. It generalizes, explains, describes, gives basic definitions. Only an explanatory note is a document that accompanies another document that is more weighty in volume, and the application( examples follow) is a small addition that offers its explanatory meaning to another word - a noun. But this is brief. Now consider the matter deeper. ..
Application in Russian
So, let's get down to business! And any case begins with the definition of the subject of study. In this case, this application. In Russian, it is a special kind of definition, which is intended to communicate a different name, an additional characteristic to a person or an object - a definable noun.
An application can be expressed as a single noun or as a noun phrase in the same case as the word being defined. It describes the subject with regard to kinship, national and social belonging, age, specialty, profession or occupation: "Yes, fi
Applications can be single, unassigned and distributed. How do they stand out in the proposal? With the help of commas, hyphens, dashes. It all depends on the type of the stand-alone application - common or unused, the proper or nominal name, where it is located relative to the word being defined and which part of the speech is the main( determined) word. A bit confusing? Now in order.
The appendix in the statement is comma or comma separated in such cases:
1) When the application is part of the speech, distributed, represented as a nominal noun with dependent words, and follows the lexical unit defined. Rarely, but it happens that in the future. For example: "My own uncle, captain of distant voyage, served in the Black Sea Fleet" or "Captain of distant voyage, my native uncle served in the Black Sea Fleet".
2) If the application is a single uncommitted, it is "crowded" behind a noun that is defined by a noun, a common noun, with explanatory words under it: "I was looking after him, a pretty girl, polka."
3) If the application is after the specified noun, the name of your own: "By the way, they said a lot about the fact that the trucker's wife Xenia, a beautiful and not stupid woman, has never been beyond her hometown in her whole life"."My great-grandmother Avdotya was born even under serfdom."In the second case, the application "my great-grandmother" stands before the designated name with its own "Avdotya" and does not stand out with commas.
The comma is written
1) If the form of the application is a proper name( name, name or nickname of the animal) that explains or specifies the common noun. As a rule, before such an application it is possible to add such refinements as "namely", "and call it", "that is" without disturbing the general meaning. For example: "And the brothers Ani,( namely) Oleg and Kirill, first-graders, pestered the father with stupid questions."
2) If the application( examples follow) is used with the union "how" or the words "by name", "by name", "by name", "by nickname", "nicknamed", etc.:as a person of high rank, it is not proper to go by public transport, "" A small freckled sailor, named Zhuk, unquestioningly carried out all the orders of the captain. "
3) If the application determines a personal pronoun. In this case, it is not so important where it is located, before or after the word being determined. For example: "In the city of Astrakhan, he, this person, lived quietly, and could not even imagine that somewhere nearby she lives, the same. .."
When the dash is written
The application in Russian can be distinguished with the help of isolation in the textdash. In which cases? The first is when you can insert the word "viz." Before the application without changing the general meaning of the statement: "At the very end of the street there was a yellow stain - light from a night light in the window of Maria's apartment".
The second - before the application, which is at the very end of the sentence, and he is given great importance: "There are no relatives and friends, there is no home, there are no warm feasts, there are no delicious meals, there is no owner of all this - a simple guy, like my friend Alexei".
Third - in order to distinguish from two sides the appendix explaining the explanation: "A slight chill - the first sign of the disease - appeared in his whole body."
The fourth - if a separate application defines one of the homogeneous members of the proposal, and it is necessary to clarify: "The host of the house was sitting at the table - my husband's friend, two unfamiliar persons. .."
And lastly, if a construction of this type is proposed: "Mephistopheles-Chaliapinwas inimitable ", i.e. Chaliapin in the role of Mephistopheles;or "Ernani - Gorin is bad as a shoemaker"( AP Chekhov).
When a hyphen
is written. Often, if a single application and the specified noun are common names, a "hyphen" is assigned between them. For example: a winter sorceress, a hero city, teenage boys, a design engineer, a cabbage butterfly, a French scientist, etc. A hyphen is also written if the application is a noun, a proper name, standing before the designated common noun: Lake Baikal, Moscow River, Astrakhan-city.
In the event that their position relative to each other is changing, a hyphen is not written: the river Moscow, Lake Baikal, the city of Astrakhan. And, finally, a hyphen is used if the noun and application defined are one complex intonation-semantic kernel: Rockefeller Sr., Dumas-father, Ivan the Fool.