The Ural River originates in Russia, but it already flows into Kazakhstan to the Caspian Sea. This is the third longest river in Europe. Its length is 2,428 km. On this indicator in the region it is second only to the Volga and the Danube. Above the source of the Urals was established a symbolic bridge, supposedly connecting the two parts of the continent: Europe and Asia.
The Ural River until 1775 was called Yaik. After the peasant revolt under the leadership of Emelian Pugachev was strangled, the Empress Catherine II renamed the embattled territories covered by the decree. The Bashkir and Yaik Cossacks, who took part in the uprising, have since become known as the Urals. This was done in order to erase the memory of the inhabitants of the event, when the power and state control over the territory were lost.
Ural - the river is fast. It flows through landscapes of a different nature, forming on its way unique in importance ecological complexes. The river bed is twistin
The Urals are considered a typical steppe river with an uneven common drain. This is especially noticeable in the water year. The Urals feed on the melting snow. It accounts for 65% of the total. The rest is precipitation and partly groundwater.
Ural freezes from November to a period of 120-160 days, depending on the region. It opens from the end of March or early April. Ice reaches the end of winter up to 80 cm in thickness. During the melting of the snow cover, and its peak falls in the lower reaches in March-April, and up to May-June up to 80% of the total water flow passes in the upper Ural.
Flood raises the level of the river from 2.5 m in the upper reaches to 7 m near Uralsk in the lower reaches. The maximum values reach 11 m. In the summer, the Urals is not such a big and stormy river. But during the spill its width increases in individual places up to 20 km with a maximum of 36 km.
The Ural River is considered fleeting. From the source to the mouth, the height difference is on average 30 cm per 1 km, which is four times larger than that of the Volga. The flow velocity during the full-water period is often 10 km / h, in the middle of the period this figure is half that.
The average channel width in the upper reaches( excluding the flood period) is 60-100 m, in the lower reaches this index is twice as large. Shores with steep cliffs and yars. The bottom in the upper stream is stony, lower - it includes gravel and pebbles, in the lower reaches - mostly sandy.
At the distance from Orenburg downstream there are up to 700 passes. The depth of the reaches is on average 3 - 4 m, the pits - up to 8 m. Closer to the mouth, 200 km from it is the famous Kruglovskaya prorva. The riverbed there is greatly narrowed, as a result of this the depth increases, serious whirlpools are created, which in some cases may pose a danger to navigation.
Basin of the
River The Ural River collects 231,000 km2 of water from the area. Its basin is asymmetric. On the right side, it is half as much, although the inflows are just more in this part. This is due to the nature of the rivers flowing into the Urals from different directions. The right - mostly mountain tributaries, and the left - mostly flat. Some of them are impermanent, and water to the main channel is reported only in high water, and in summer often dry up.
The largest influx on the right is Chagan. It is possible to allocate still the rivers: Sakmara, Artazym, Taganlyk, Big Kizil. On the left side, the most full flow is Ilek. In addition to it, the Urals still feed the rivers: Ory, Utva, Chest, Gumbeyka, Bolshoy Kumak.
map The source is the source, located in the spurs of the Uraltau ridge. It is located above the sea level at 637 m at the foot of the Nasimtau mountains. At first the current is directed to the south to the elevation of the Kazakh steppe. This barrier makes the river turn northwest.
In this direction the current drives water to Orenburg, and then again turns south-west to Uralsk. Further downstream the riverbed paved its way to the south. The river slightly wriggles, slightly deviates from north to west, but flows to the mouth in a southerly direction and flows into the Caspian Sea.
The Urals originates in Russia. It flows through the territory of Bashkortostan, crosses the Chelyabinsk and Orenburg regions. The upper part of the river has a mountain character up to Verkhneuralsk, then it changes to a more calm plain before Magnitogorsk. Up to Orsk the channel is compressed by rocky coasts, on this interval there are ruts.
In the middle reaches the Urals intercepts the border with Kazakhstan. Further it moves to the south. After the city of Uralsk, extending along the Caspian lowland, the channel widens, numerous channels, lakes and old people are formed. The river flows into the Caspian Sea with two sleeves.
Russia: the Ural River
The source is a sprinkling spring from the earth at an altitude of 637 m above sea level. Several years ago the beginning of the Ural River was marked by a memorable sign. This place is located in Bashkortostan near the village of Voznesenka, Uchaly district. Downstream, five small sources merge into one channel, which at this interval has the character of a mountain river. Further, the Urals descend into the valley and flow into the vast Yaitsk swamp.
Two reservoirs have been equipped to supply the Magnitogorsk Metallurgical Combine in the upper reaches of the river. Orsk also has a production facility that takes water from the Urals. This is the Khalilov Metallurgical Combine.
River in Kazakhstan
The mouth of the Ural River is located in Kazakhstan below the city of Atyrau. It is located 27 m below sea level. Thus, the height difference from the source is 664 meters. The mouth is arranged as a delta. It has a finger-shaped form. This is typical for most rivers that flow into the inner seas and have a low flow velocity in the lower reaches. The Urals flow into the Caspian with two sleeves: Yaitsky and Zolotinsky. The beginning of the delta is considered to be the place of the flow of the Narynka channel, which is 100 km from the mouth.
Shipping is possible to Uralsk. Downstream, a reservoir was constructed and the Kushum Canal originates. There is a port in Atyrau. Developed fisheries. Bream, carp, herring and sturgeon - this fish is considered commercial in the region. Agriculture is developing with an emphasis on growing melons and watermelons. The water of the Urals is used for irrigation, dozens of canals are equipped. The river has a huge economic importance, it is interesting for tourism and outdoor recreation.