Oil is an oily liquid, usually black or reddish brown with a specific odor and combustible properties. Today, fuel is produced from this substance, so we can safely say that this is the most valuable mineral on the planet Earth( along with natural gas).There are oil deposits in many parts of the planet. Most of the information in this article will be devoted to the places of deposits of "black gold".
Oil and natural gas usually lie in the same place, so often these minerals are extracted from one well."Black gold" is usually mined at a depth of 1-3 kilometers, but it is often found both on the surface and at a depth of more than 6 km.
Natural gas is a gas mixture that is formed as a result of long decomposition of organic substances. As noted above, the largest oil deposits can be located around the globe. The largest are in Saudi Arabia, Iran, Russia, the United States. Another thing is that not all countries can afford independent production due to high prices for well dev
Let's talk about where the most significant deposits of "black gold" are located.
A little about the classification of oil fields
Note that not all fossils under the earth can be considered deposits. For example, if there are too few deposits, then from an economic point of view, it makes no sense to bring equipment and drill a well. Oil field is a set of oil deposits located on a certain territory. The area occupied ranges from tens to hundreds of kilometers. By the number of oil deposits, the fields can be divided into five groups:
- small - the amount of minerals does not exceed ten million tons;
- average - from 10 to 100 million tons of oil( such deposits include Kukmol, Verkh-Tarskoe and others);
- large - from 100 million to 1 billion tons( Kalamkas, Pravdinsky and others);
- giant, they are the largest - 1-5 billion tons of oil( Romashkino, Somatlor and so on);
- unique, or supergiant - more than five billion tons( the largest deposits include deposits on Al-Gavar, Bolshoy Kurgan, in Rumaila).
As you can see, not all deposits of minerals can be attributed to this or that group. For example, some deposits have no more than a hundred tons of "black gold".They do not make sense to open, because it is very unprofitable.
Oil field in Russia
Currently, more than twenty points are discovered on the territory of the Russian Federation, where "black gold" is actively mined. Every year the number of deposits increases, but in view of today's low oil prices, the opening of new points is extremely unprofitable. This applies only to small and medium-sized deposits.
The main part of the wells is located in the arctic seas, and more precisely, directly in their bowels. Naturally, development due to difficult climatic conditions is somewhat difficult. Another problem is the delivery of oil and gas to the processing plant. For this simple reason, in the territory of the Russian Federation there are only a few such items that perform primary and secondary processing. One of them is a train of Sakhalin. Another plant is on the mainland. This is due to the fact that this territory has more than one large oil field in Russia. In particular, we can talk about Siberia and the Far East.
The main oil fields in the territory of the Russian Federation
First of all, we will describe the Urengoy field. It is one of the largest and ranks second in the world ranking. The amount of natural gas here is about 10 trillion cubic meters, and oil is less by about 15%.This deposit is located in the Tyumen Region, in the Yamal-German Autonomous District. The name was given in honor of a small settlement of Urengoy, which is located nearby. After the discovery of the deposit in 1966, a small town grew up here. The first wells started their work in 1978. They function until today.
The Nakhodkinskoye gas field is also worthy of mention. Despite the fact that the amount of natural gas here is estimated at 275 billion cubic meters, it contains a large amount of "black gold".The first production began only 28 years after the discovery, in 2004.
Tuymazinskoye oil field
The deposit is located near the city of Tuymazy, in the Republic of Bashkiria. It was discovered very long ago, back in 1937.Oil-bearing beds are relatively shallow, about 1-2 km below the ground. To date, the Tuymazinskoye deposit is in the TOP-5 of the largest places in oil deposits. Development began in 1944, and is still being successfully carried out. Oil deposits are located on a large area of about 40 x 20 kilometers. The use of advanced methods of extracting valuable products made it possible to extract the main deposits of minerals in about 20 years. In addition, about 45-50% more oil was extracted from the Devonian strata than with the use of classical methods. Later it turned out that the amount of "black gold" in this place is more than expected, so it is mined to this day.
Kovykta and Vankor deposits
The Kovykta field is located in the Irkutsk region. Since the wells are mainly located on a high plateau, this place is surrounded only by taiga. Despite the fact that initially there was discovered the extraction of natural gas and liquid gas condensate, a little later there were oil wells that turned out to be quite rich. Undoubtedly, the main oil fields in the Russian Federation are a whole system of wells that together make the state the leader in the extraction of "black gold" all over the world.
The Vankor field is located in the north of the Krasnoyarsk Territory. It can not be called just oil, because a lot of natural gas is produced every year. According to preliminary estimates, the amount of oil in this field is about 260 million tons, and the volume of natural gas is about 90 billion cubic meters. At this site there are 250 wells, and the product is delivered by the Eastern oil pipeline.
The deposits of "black gold" in various countries of the world
It is worthwhile to draw your attention to the fact that not only in Russia there are the largest oil fields. This valuable product is enough in many other countries. For example, in the west of Canada, in the province of Alberta, there are the largest deposits. It produces about 95% of the "black gold" of the whole country, in addition, there are large volumes of natural gas.
Austria is also known for its rich deposits. Most of them are located in the Vienna Basin. The map of the oil fields indicates that production is also being carried out in Vendorf, which is located on the border with Czechoslovakia. Also known is the Aderklaa deposit.
Something else about
oil It was not said about the world's largest supplier of "black gold" - Saudi Arabia. It is enough that here there are deposits of 75-85 billion barrels( the Gavar field).In Kuwait, the total deposits are 66-73 billion barrels. Iran constantly develops an oil field. To date, it is established that there are simply huge reserves of "black gold".For example, five fields are estimated at one hundred billion barrels, and this already says a lot. However, it is worth noting that most of the wells belong to the United States.
Monthly at least one new oil field appears in the world. Undoubtedly, this mineral is of great importance for man. Fuel is made from it, it is used as fuel for vehicles and so on. It is impossible not to notice that today in the world there is a fierce struggle between the United States and Russia for every new oil well. Of course, many states are trying to find an alternative to oil. If previously used to use coal, then today, "black gold" it is gradually replaced. But the world's oil reserves will end sooner or later, then you have to invent something new. That is why today a lot of famous scientists are trying to solve the problem of the alternative of "black gold".