Numerous fishing enthusiasts are familiar with such an indispensable attribute of their hobby as the red Californian worms, but even the most inveterate of them do not always know what this is called what they use as bait. And the more so they do not suspect that they can be used not only in this capacity, but at least in a few others.
Kinds of earthworm
To begin with, worms are the most common species of invertebrates on the whole planet, and their habitat does not include the Antarctic. In fact, their species and subspecies there is a huge variety. Biologists distinguish three main categories, depending on the behavior of worms in the natural environment. These are Anecic, Endogeic and Epigeic.
The first species "prefers" existence on the surface of the ground, and the burrows burrow into the depths, usually vertically downwards. The main food for this species is organic, which they process in humus. This category is characterized by a momentary extinction of activity and the ability to reprod
The second type "prefers" more mineralized soil, in which there is much less organic material. Worms of this category dig horizontal holes, do not like the surface and need constant processing of the soil. Thus, they saturate the earth with various nutrients, enriching it for further use by vegetation, and also increasing the oxygen content in it. The use of this variety of earthworms is also mostly uncontrolled and has a mostly natural character.
The third type is the one mentioned in this article, because it is the Californian worms, as they are called, that can safely endure artificial living conditions, and their use has a concrete economic benefit. This variety prefers for the life of the upper layer of the soil, and if you specify, all sorts of organic, which he is so rich. These are leaves, remains of trees, bark and so on. Deep and branched systems of moves Californian worms do not dig.
The popularity of this species from the economic point of view is due to the possibility of its breeding in artificial habitats. The main factor is only the presence of a sufficient amount of organic material, which is fairly easy to implement, as well as the lack of the need to use a deep layer of soil. The breeding of Californian worms is associated with a number of important technical issues that should be taken into account.
To understand the basics of breeding worms, it is necessary to give several definitions that are used by professionals in this field of activity.
Compost is a fertilizer obtained from organic waste as a result of their decomposition with the direct participation of microorganisms. The most common sources for its production are peat, manure, bird droppings, foliage and a variety of garden waste.
Vermicompost, or biohumus, is a product of compost processing by earthworms, bacteria and some other organisms. In particular, Californian worms can be used as a result of a certain selection work in order to improve the overall quality of fertilizers produced at the output of production.
Vermicomposting is the main driving force for business related to the cultivation of worms, as this product is in demand. And not only within the domestic segment of agricultural activities, but even abroad, which should also be considered when preparing plans for the development of their own business in this area. And although such a business can include the very distribution of worms and their cocoons as a completely self-sufficient part of it, biohumus is the most profitable investment.
Using the vermicompost
The most common application of this fertilizer is associated with the cultivation of various vegetable crops. This applies not only to greenhouse forms like tomatoes or cucumbers, but also potatoes. The yield increase, achieved with the use of a vermicompost, reaches 40%.Also biohumus is extremely effective in growing strawberries, strawberries and other types of berries, cultivated in different regions. At the same time, they are characterized by a yield increase of up to 60%.Obviously, the use of this fertilizer has good demand, which means that it can be easily sold and earned on this.
We should not forget about the rich importers of the vermicompost. For example, the countries of the Arab world, in particular the UAE, widely use biohumus to grow various crops, collecting up to three crops per season. At the same time, they pay well for a quality vermicompost. So, the cost of one ton of products varies in the range of 2 thousand dollars. In Europe biohumus is bought for 600 euros, which also looks very attractive. In Russia, this product is not so valuable, for example, a forty-liter package costs about 400 rubles. That is, with a competent approach to advertising and sales, you can still earn by selling biohumus. However, to get to this market, you will have to work hard and not only earn a good name, but also create a really effective production structure.
Since the article deals with the cultivation of the Californian worm, one should know the main advantages of its use from an economic point of view. And although there is an opinion among the people about the incredible characteristics of this variety, this should not be done at all. Advertising activities in this area really inflates the figures to an incredible size. It is reported that red Californian worms live up to 15-16 years, which is a common misconception. In fact, the life expectancy of individuals is not very different from that of their native relatives, amounting to 5-6 years.
California worms supposedly exist in temperature conditions from 2 to 40 degrees. This is also not true, their activity is practically disappearing at 35 degrees, not to mention that at 4 degrees they begin to die. In general, all advertising tricks are fairly obvious. Despite all this, the Californian worm still has some advantages over its domestic counterparts, so it is profitable to buy it for creating your own business.
The real pluses of
Among the widely advertised pluses that actually take place, one can mention activity even in the winter season, which can not be said about the rain variety, as well as the compactness of the populations that Californian worms prefer to live in( photos of them, incidentally, can be seen at the beginning of the review).
In addition, it is necessary to note a higher level of reproduction of this species in comparison with the usual one. And although here there is also an advertising exaggeration, the figures are called almost dozens of times, in fact, this figure is somewhere in a half to two times higher. So the Californian worms still have obvious advantages, which also determines the choice of many diligent hosts.
The breeding process can be considered in two main types: in the industrial, when it is necessary to work with a large number of individuals, and home, when the usual garden and garden plot can also become a source of good earnings.
Breeding Californian worms involves the correct organization of activities and following certain instructions. Consider the main points of creating your own business first in the garden area, and then in the industrial environment.
California worm is acquired in the form of either adults, either fry or cocoons, depending on the season, money opportunities, etc. On the garden plot, you need to prepare a square pit meter per meter and a depth of about 70 cm. That worms do not go to explore the expanses of garden partnership, you should compact its bottom surface and cover the walls with boards. The nutrient medium, or, as it is also called, a substrate with worms, falls into a pit and is carefully leveled with pitchforks. Then add a layer of a simple substrate. To get a vermicompost, it is necessary to carry out the so-called drawing of worms.
Naturally, it takes several weeks before a biohumus of normal quality is obtained, so that the worms can process the nutrient medium. Extract is the addition of the top layer of the substrate, its thorough loosening, after which the worms creep into this upper layer. Next, you must carefully remove this layer, saturated with them, and transfer it to a new pit to continue the cycle of creating a vermicompost. The average drawing time is about three to four weeks.
The resulting layer of recycled compost is sieved, dried, after which it can be sold at a price at which an enterprising businessman will be able to negotiate with a fertilizer customer. Well, worms continue their work in the next pit, performing a cycle of developing new products. So in the main and used Californian worms at home.
Another important point is the fabrication of the substrate. The available waste is crushed. This can be paper, straw, tops or any other organic filler. The resulting mass is located near the pit and watered with liquid manure. The humidity that needs to be created is about 80%.Checking whether the mass is sufficiently moist is very simple. If the nearby worms do not crawl into it, you must continue to water. The substrate must be loosened every two weeks.
From the point of view of small investments, the Californian worm is convenient. Breeding at home does not require serious investment, you need only a sufficient amount of patience and interest in this case, because, obviously, you have to deal with swarming creatures in the ground and in the presence of not very pleasant smells. In any case, this is work for true enthusiasts.
If it's a professional approach to how to dilute a Californian worm, then there are certain nuances. In the previous section, we talked about the number of individuals in 10-20 thousand pieces. When talking about the volume of a million worms, the approach is somewhat different.
This requires 10 to 15 square meters.meters of indoor space. The temperature to be maintained is in the range of 15 to 30 degrees Celsius. It will require natural ventilation and artificial lighting, plus water supply, preferably non-residential, as chlorinated water can ruin the entire population. It is well suited well or river water.
Care should be taken to protect the room from rodents, which can easily destroy a significant part of the colony. That is, you need a hard floor covering, as well as walls. Height of the mother liquor should be from two to two and a half meters. Cultivation of Californian worms as a business - activity, requiring the same thorough preparation as any high-tech area.
You will also need to purchase shelving, which will accommodate trays with colonies of worms. Boxes are best used perforated, made of plastic, to provide the required level of oxygen and easy withdrawal of excess fluid. In each tray should be planned density of population up to 20 thousand individuals.
To make a substrate in an enclosed environment, manure or planned organic waste should be spread out with a layer of 20 cm and covered with a film. The temperature should be about 55 degrees Celsius. After 24 hours, the resulting mass should be brought to 30 degrees and moistened to 80%.The resulting substrate is laid out on the drawers with a layer of 5 cm. At the same time, one should remember the good ventilation in order to remove the formed gases from the room.
The next stage is the habituation of worms to a new climate for them, and then to the substrate. Boxes with a new nutrient mixture are installed on top of trays with worms. Further actions are simply maintaining the optimum moisture level in the trays. When worms process the substrate, the biohumus obtained is separated, dried, sieved and sold to customers.
Thus, a red Californian worm, the breeding of which can be put on stream, can bring a decent income to an enterprising rural dweller.
Some technical details of
The issues considered in the article quite publicly reveal an area that has a decent technology, not adhering to it - it means that one can easily ruin laborious work for many weeks. The main driving force of business is California worms. How to breed them is a whole layer of technology that a beginner should know, adjusting the environmental conditions to the unpretentious needs of his "toilers".However, there are a couple of important issues. For example, what are cocoons of California worms and where to get them?
In fact, worms lay eggs immediately after mating. Of course, this is very different from the system used, for example, by birds, but the principle is similar. Worms perform copulation, after which they form a so-called cocoon in the body, which is separated and then can contain from one to five small individuals during the opening.
There are specialized agro-firms involved in the supply of this biomass. By the way, within the limits of own business on worms it is possible to create branch of activity on cultivation of cocoons. For this, there is a separate technology that the entrepreneur can also take note and master.
The convenience of using cocoons in the worm business is due to the obvious conditions. The most important thing is transportation, and from the point of view of breeding - also the value of this product. Therefore, this feature of the propagation of worms should also be considered when designing their own business related to their breeding.
As already mentioned, there is some advertising euphoria associated with the incredible qualities that the Californian worms supposedly possess. The public's responses vary widely enough: from laudatory to pejorative. However, obviously, there are certain advantages of this kind of worms before the same rain, especially in terms of creating their own business for their breeding. Good ability to reproduce, unpretentiousness, improving the quality of fertilizers, in the creation of which they take the most important part, is not a complete list of pluses.
In addition, aspects of the use of Californian worms are at least a few. Firstly, this is actually the creation of biohumus as the most valuable and popular product on the modern agricultural market. And the demand for it has been steadily growing over the past few years. With the increase in production capacity, new opportunities for implementation will also appear. So, already now the Arab Emirates is acquiring biohumus for fabulous money. Of course, for this you have to work hard, but if the entrepreneur has a desire to produce in this area, then the entrance to the international market is quite real.
Secondly, such a business will obviously increase the worm's livestock on an improvised farm, if, again, the owner will strictly follow the technology. This means that it is possible to sell the "producer" himself, without decreasing the capacity, but, on the contrary, increasing the number and improving the conditions for their livelihoods.
Third, you can deal with the supply of so-called cocoons, that is, the offspring of the population. And this is another effective way of earning money in the field of breeding worms.
In general, this activity requires not only careful planning, but also a certain amount of enthusiasm and desire to tinker with manure and other, to put it mildly, not the most fragrant substances. So business is unusual and for a certain circle of people can become a source of good stable income and a way of self-expression in trying to make this world a little better. In addition, it does not require special investment. Of course, the size of the initial investment depends on the scope of the entrepreneur, but, as a rule, at the beginning of the amount of a thousand dollars to open their own business will be more than enough.