Hydraulic fluid is of industrial value and is an indispensable component of hydraulic systems. It protects parts from rapid wear and contributes to the normal operation of the hydraulic system at different temperatures and humidity.
What is hydraulic oil
This is the fluid that is used for the proper operation of hydraulic systems. No hydraulic system can operate without hydraulic oil.
The main function of a hydraulic fluid is the transfer of mechanical energy with a change in the value of the applied force from its place of origin to that part of the system where it will be used.
oil characteristics Hydraulic oil is an indispensable component of the hydraulic system. It carries out an important task of transferring efforts.
To perform its functions, the hydraulic oil must withstand oxidation processes, poorly foaming and be inert to the materials of the hydraulic system. In addition to these conditions, a very important parameter is a low freezing point and a very high value for i
Fluid characteristics are indicated by such factors as kinematic viscosity, acid number, pour point and flash point, viscosity index, oxidation resistance, corrosive effect on metal, bulk of mechanical impurities and water. For each brand of hydraulic oil, the values of these indicators differ.
Properties of hydraulic oils
Hydraulic fluids provide:
- Antifogging properties - they help to reduce foaming.
- Antioxidant properties - hydraulic oils, resistant to oxidative processes under the influence of the thermal factor.
- Viscosity-temperature properties - oils determine the operating temperature of the hydraulic system.
- Demulsifying properties - hydraulic oils contribute to the separation of water.
- Anticorrosive qualities - the use of hydraulic oils prevents corrosion of parts.
- Anti-wear properties - protection against wear of the system under the influence of high loads.
The quality of hydraulic systems and the temperature regime of their operation are significantly influenced by the viscosity properties of hydraulic oil. When choosing a hydraulic grade with a certain viscosity, it is important to consider the type of pump. In general, the equipment manufacturers indicate the permissible maximum, minimum and optimal viscosity values for each type of pump.
The maximum viscosity of the hydraulic oil is the highest value at which the pump can pump the liquid. The process of operation also depends on the pump's power, length and diameter of the pipeline. Increased viscosity significantly impairs the movement of pump parts and hinders the operation of the hydraulic system in low temperature conditions.
The minimum viscosity is characterized by an indicator in which the hydraulic system functions reliably. At lower viscosity, a leakage occurs in the pump and valves, resulting in power loss, lubrication deterioration, and wear on the friction parts of the hydraulic system.
Optimal viscosity is the value at which the minimum allowable flow resistance is ensured and the pump parts are thoroughly lubricated.
Areas of Application
Hydraulic fluid is used in almost all industries. Most often, these oils are used in the mining and oil industry, in rescue equipment, at sluice gates and bridges, in casting machines, machine tools, presses, heavy manipulators, in machinery for the production of plastics, etc.
It should also be noted that there ismany varieties of hydraulic oils. Each brand has its own purpose:
- VMGZ oil is manufactured for hydraulic systems of construction, lifting, transportation, road, logging and other types of machines that operate in open areas.
- MGE - is intended for agricultural machinery.
- Oil grade "A" - is used only for automatic transmissions and torque converters.
- Oil "R" - is designed for power steering and hydraulic lift systems.
- Oil AUP - is produced for hydraulic lifting gear of sea and land special equipment.
- Spilled oil АУ - is intended for operation of hydroconducting lines at temperature from -30 to +100 ºС.
- GT - is used to lubricate the turbo-reducer of hydraulic transmission of diesel trains.
- Oil grade ЭШ - is intended for hydraulic systems of highly loaded mechanisms. For example, for walking excavators and similar machines.
Classification of oils
Based on the viscosity and additive composition, a classification of hydraulic oils has been developed, which is valid worldwide. Thus, hydraulic oils differ in viscosity by 10 classes: 5, 7, 10, 15, 22, 32, 46, 68, 100 and 150 classes.
The following additives are used in the composition of the additives:
- Group A - this includes petroleum oils without additives that are designed for lightly loaded hydraulic systems with piston or gear pump types operating at temperatures up to 80 ° C and pressures up to 15 MPa.
- Group B - hydraulic fluids with anti-corrosion and antioxidant additives. Oils of this category are used in medium-voltage hydraulic systems with different types of pumps operating at temperatures above 80 ° C and pressures up to 2.5 MPa.
- Group B - thoroughly cleaned oils with anti-corrosion, anti-wear and antioxidant additives. They are designed for hydraulic systems that are capable of operating at an oil temperature above 90 ° C and a pressure of more than 25 MPa.
Classification of oils to their intended purpose:
- hydraulic oils for mobile earth, river and marine equipment, aircraft;
- for hydro-braking and shock absorbers of different machines;
- for hydraulic systems of industrial equipment.
Application and storage: Customer feedback and advice
It is very important to use pure oil for the normal operation of any hydraulic system. According to statistics, more than 70% of all equipment failures are caused by the presence of dirt in hydraulic oil. Therefore, most consumers recommend not to save on hydraulic fluid, and buy immediately quality oil, which was thoroughly cleaned.
Fill the hydraulic system with a pump only. It is forbidden to pour in liquid, otherwise the dirt accumulated on the container will get into the system and cause it to malfunction. To fill the system with oil, a filter must be used.
Store the hydraulic fluid in such a way that water and dirt do not get into it. To do this, it is best to use barrels, which after filling should be well closed and turned upside down.
Hydraulic oil replacement should only be carried out in two cases - with depletion of additives or degradation of the base oil. There are many indicators on the basis of which it is possible to make a decision to replace the liquid. To find out when to change the hydraulic oil, you need to do an analysis. If you do not replace it in time, you can damage all other components of the hydraulic system.
Hydraulic oil cost
To date, there are many companies and online stores that offer hydraulic oil. The price for this product may vary depending on the type and brand. So, for a hydraulic fluid of domestic production it is necessary to pay about 80 rubles for 1 liter. The price for hydraulic oil Shell and other famous brands is from 125 rubles and above. You can buy liquid in barrels of different volumes, as well as bottling in their containers.