Kaluga is a typical city of the Middle Russia. Getting here, you begin to understand the whole charm of the province, the beauty of its lovely, cozy yards, quiet squares and ancient churches. Life here goes according to its own special order, unhurried and measured. Attractions of Kaluga are very difficult to describe, as the whole city is one big souvenir of an immense country. It is located along the banks of the Oka River, in honor of which the first Russian small car was named.
History of Kaluga
This is a relatively small city, which appeared on the map of Russia back in 1317.At the same time, there are data on settlements that allegedly stretched on the site of a modern subject for 7 thousand years before our era. True, the permanence of their location on this land is difficult to assess, therefore officially the city has been history since the XIV century. Quite tiny then, it even today has an area of only 530 km. Despite this, the city is the center of the region. He appeared as a guard
In 1777 the city became the center of the Kaluga region, and since then this status has not changed. Kaluga has often been at the center of most interesting historical events, unfortunately, not always peaceful. So, in 1606, peasant uprisings broke out here. The rebellious people managed not only to endure the assaults of the tsarist troops, but also to approach Tula. The greatest wars in the history of mankind also did not bypass the city side. Under the walls of Kaluga in 1812 formed the rear of the army Kutuzov. During the Great Patriotic War it was here that the decisive battles for Moscow took place.
Location of the city
The Kaluga region is located in the heart of the East European Plain, south-west of the Russian capital. Attractions of Kaluga are well-known and thanks to the convenient location of the city. The Kaluga region borders on the Moscow, Orel, Smolensk, Tula and Bryansk regions. Muscovites gladly come here to breathe provincial silence and tranquility, to rest from the frenzied rhythm. Nature itself has created the best places of interest in Kaluga. The city stands at the intersection of four rivers: Yachenka, Cherepets, Kievka and Oka. This creates favorable conditions for the growth of trees, it is not surprising that the city is simply buried in greenery.
What is known about Kaluga
Quite a lot of interesting information is stored in the history of Kaluga. The sights of the city are its live pages, which serve as reminders of former glory. It was here that the outstanding mathematician, inventor, theoretician of astronautics Konstantin Tsiolkovsky lived and worked. The city does not forget this, but as a confirmation of that, the flag depicts the first Soviet satellite. That is why the Astronautics Museum opens the sights of Kaluga. The photo and description of this object can be found in any guidebook, but it's much better to see everything yourself.
The museum was opened in 1967.If you are passionate about the history or works of Tsiolkovsky, then you will surely like it. The scientific heritage of a brilliant scientist is carefully guarded and stored, but everyone will be acquainted with all materials. Particularly interesting is the history of Russian cosmonautics, which revives within the walls of the museum. One can trace the entire branch, from the first artificial earth satellites to modern long-term orbital stations, which are a whole scientific complex. Visitors are introduced to the activities of outstanding designers. Especially worth noting is located here a collection of rocket engines. The museum revitalizes the whole history of aeronautics and the conquest of space, from the cradle to the present day, it appears before the eyes of visitors.
Because the city is so honored by the famous explorers of the cosmos, it could not do without a planetarium. In the Kaluga planetarium very interesting lectures are conducted, which will interest anyone. The session lasts approximately 50 minutes, during this time you will plunge into the mysterious expanses of space and make an exciting trip. It's amazing to get to a dark, starry night among a sunny day. Overhead, the whole sky opens, pleasant music plays, and the lecturer slowly tells you legends related to ballooning, constellations and walks on other planets. This event is very fond of children, but it is also interesting for adults.
Parks and gardens
Sights of Kaluga and Kaluga region are first of all natural beauties. This is a real city of parks, especially well seen from above. The whole city is completely hidden by green crowns, and the blue lines of rivers cut this magnificence. Perhaps the most beautiful and picturesque is the central city park. Where there are noisy shadows today, there used to be a fortress with battle towers. Since there were a lot of people wishing to capture Moscow, these battles were fought many times at these walls.
This park is especially proud of Kaluga. Photo attractions can be found on many gift cards. Ancient alleys consist of oaks and lindens, as well as silver poplar. They are protected by the state. One of the relict plants is a huge oak tree, which is over 700 years old. The park has a huge number of centennial silvery fir trees and holly maples, Siberian fir, larch and veymutovyh pines.
In recent years, greening of park territories is actively developing in Russia. Kaluga does not lag behind. Photo landmarks show that there were new avenues of ash and white acacia, apple trees and mountain ash. In addition, plantations of shrubs were planted: lilac, honeysuckle, acacia.
We continue to consider the sights of Kaluga. The photo and the description of ancient buildings on many cast a longing, but in this city really has something to look at. The city managed to preserve a number of architectural monuments, the oldest objects include the Korobov stone chambers erected in 1697 and the eighteenth-century residential buildings. The building of the Noble Assembly, which became known as the Palace of Labor, was built in the middle of the XIX century. This is a massive, powerful building with columns, on which balconies rest. Here was the Palace of Pioneers, and today there are performances, literary evenings and various exhibitions.
The stone bridge is the next object for viewing, which brings to your attention Kaluga. Sightseeing( tourists' reviews confirm this) are not so often met, making a trip to the cities of Russia. This bridge is the link between the city center and the area beyond the Berezuevsky ravine. It is the largest of the viaducts of our country. The bridge project was designed by the famous architect, P. Nikitin. The length of this stunning construction is about 160 meters, and the height is over 20. Construction is finished in 1785.Not all sights of the city of Kaluga find such a response in the hearts of tourists. This spectacle is really amazing. The bridge rests on fifteen large arches, with three central arches in two floors. At the extended ends of the stone bridge, on both sides, there were stone buildings with benches. Today only memories remain of them. The bridge was restored and reinforced with a lattice and chased brackets.
Do not overlook the Gostiny Dvor. This building occupies a whole block and is a classic example of architecture of the XVII century. The building has 14 buildings, which connect charming arches and galleries. Another of the most beautiful buildings is the house of Yanovsky, an architectural monument of the late 18th century. A huge building with two wings was built for the richest merchants - Pryanishnikovs. Before the revolution, the granddaughter of the famous merchant, the wife of Nikolai Yanovsky, lived here. And then the Soviet power transferred the estate to the Department of Public Education, and since 1923 it housed the headquarters of the rifle division. The famous house was constantly filmed in Soviet films.
This is the main property of the city of Kaluga. Sights, reviews about which are among the most published, certainly deserve our attention. The first one wants to note the Ioanno-Predtechenskaya church. For the first time it was erected in 1685, after that has undergone many changes and reconstruction, but thanks to the art of the masters still looks like an ancient castle. The building is made of red brick with white ornaments. It looks very beautiful dome - sky blue, like the sky. Inside, the church is simply amazing: stunning paintings, colorful stained-glass windows and the richest iconostasis. .. All this gives a special mood.
The church of Kosmy and Damian is a magnificent architectural monument in the Baroque style. Impressive composition of the main volume of the temple: at the corners of the two-tier tetrahedron are put four strongly protruding eksedry, and they, in turn, pass into the round turrets of the side chapters. This is a very elegant and proportionate building, reminiscent of a graceful ship.
The pearl of the Kaluga region - the Temple complex in Grabtsevo - is worth the attention of everyone who decided to visit these lands. It is an ensemble of stunning beauty, including temples dedicated to the Assumption of the Virgin and Nicholas the Wonderworker, a chapel dedicated to the holy martyrs of Andrian and Natalia and a beautiful bell tower. The farmstead on the territory of which this complex is built dates from the 18th century( 1771).In 1780 the bell tower was built, till now it is stunningly beautiful: the patterns of white stone, like lace, cover the red brick. In 1791, built Nicholas Church - it is made in the form of a ship, the architecture has preserved traces of late Borokko.
Very beautiful is the St. George's Cathedral. It was built in 1701 in the style of the Moscow Baroque. The structure is characterized by the harmony of proportions and the abundance of decorative elements. The exterior decoration has been preserved almost completely. The building of the temple is stone, two-story, the roof is decorated with five chapters. The belfry is an octagon on a three-tiered quadrangle. Crowned by his tall tent. This is not all the spiritual sights of Kaluga - there are too many of them to mention everything in a short article.
There are a lot of beautiful obelisks and sculptures in the city. As a reminder to the younger generation, there is a monument to the veteran. The composition depicts an old man who sat down on a bench to rest. Not forgotten and the famous Tsiolkovsky: in his honor a sculpture depicting a scientist on a bicycle. The monument to the young Gagarin is set next to the Cosmonautics Museum. In addition, there is a huge number of ancient buildings that represent the sights of Kaluga and the Kaluga region.
The Museum of the History of Astronautics we have already touched, now let's talk about others. In the city there is a War Museum of 1812.It was opened in 2009 and is housed in the house of S. Batenkov. In addition, there is an exposition in the city that tells about the history of the Kaluga carrot. Do not forget to visit the regional museum of local lore, which will tell about the history of the region, the wealth of its bowels and traditional inhabitants, namely the plant and animal world. The regional art museum constantly holds exhibitions of city talents, here well-known masters of the whole country display paintings. In the world of art, Kaluga is very popular. Museums and sights of the city are themselves themes for a variety of canvases.
The city operates the Mineralogical Museum. In his collection there are more than 500 exhibits. This cultural object is the result of the work of a huge number of Kaluga geologists. Alexander Sinitsyn and Konstantin Chistov( museum director) provided their own collections for his fund. Here you can get acquainted not only with samples extracted from the bowels of the region. The largest in Europe mineralogical museum "Fersman RAN", providing support, has placed in Kaluga part of its expositions.
The city has a unique Museum of crafts, architecture and everyday life. It is dedicated to the restoration of the traditional craft of clay toys. On the basis of this institution a school of craftsmanship works, so that the forgotten craft revived and developed. The museum is opened in a unique house, the only monument in Kaluga with an attic. The first floor is stone, the second one is wooden. It deals with adults and children, sometimes come to learn whole families. Collecting the results of works, regularly arrange exhibitions. Particularly loved by such events are tourists, because a clay toy can become a wonderful souvenir.
The Kaluga Drama Theater has existed for more than two centuries. Several generations of talented actors have grown up here. Almost all the famous Russian talents began their studies and careers here. In Kaluga young Savin served, P. Mochalov, M. Shchepkin, G. Fedotova and many others toured here. A monument to the theater's spectator is located nearby. He is a girl who holds a sign in his hand. This sculpture is the first and only of its kind. And there are not so many theaters of this scale all over the country.
It is very difficult to independently create an optimal program to inspect the city of Kaluga. Attractions and hiking trails are best studied with a guide who will help in a short time to get to a huge number of places. However, today it is developing a service for tourists who travel independently. Special cards with different routes are issued, and in almost every kiosk you can buy a guide. In addition, there is a network of directing signs throughout the city, each of which contains a pictogram belonging to one of four groups: "tourist infrastructure", "sports and outdoor recreation," "tourist and recreational areas and routes," "tourist attractions".For foreigners, the text is written in Russian and English.
Attractions of Kaluga and the region are not limited only to churches and parks. Each street of this ancient city is original and surprisingly beautiful, therefore, if you are going to visit the city, it is desirable to stock up on time. Take a leisurely stroll along the boulevards, go to the park, wander through the alleys, where the rustle of centuries-old giants rustle. A huge number of exhibitions and performances that are held in museums, galleries and the theater, will allow you to get more acquainted with the culture and history of Kaluga.