It is possible to detect various malfunctions in the functioning of the body with the help of analyzes. The study of urine is sufficiently informative. Depending on what problems the patient is concerned with, there are several ways to conduct it. A general analysis, a Zimnitsky or Nechiporenko study can be done, a test for the presence of acetone, etc.
Detection of inflammation
If patients are concerned about pain during urination, and the general analysis shows no deviations, it is worth continuing the examination. In this case, the competent doctor may suggest conducting a Nechiporenko study. For patients it is a chance to find out the cause of problems without unnecessary expenditure. Such an analysis is considered standard, it is done in conventional laboratories of polyclinics. The main thing is that the doctor does not forget to make an appropriate note on the direction.
The results of a urine test for Nechiporenko provide an opportunity to detect malfunctions in the body. After all, th
If a doctor suspects that there is a hidden inflammatory process in your body, he will prescribe a special examination. But do not worry: the collection of urine analysis according to Nechiporenko is carried out almost the same way as for other studies of this biological material. But it must be properly prepared.
It is advisable to revise your diet one day before the proposed study. From it you need to exclude fruits or vegetables that can change the color of urine. It is also recommended to limit the number of meat dishes, salty, spicy and sour food. Eliminate the intake of alcohol and try to protect yourself from excessive physical exertion. Refuse diuretics and drugs that can affect the color of urine and the coagulability of blood.
Well, with the rules of preparation everything is clear. Now let's discuss how to collect urinalysis by Nechiporenko. By the way, a very important nuance: women are not recommended to take biological material during critical days.
Now the process itself. First, a thorough hygienic toilet of the genitals is needed. For the study, only the first morning urine is taken. To collect it, you need to release a small amount of liquid into the toilet. Wash it in 2-3 seconds, after that you can already substitute the jar. In the container you need to collect about 100 ml of urine.
When talking about how to collect a urinalysis by Nechiporenko, it's important not to forget that the used jar should be clean and dry. It is better to buy a special container in the pharmacy. If you want to use some kind of homemade jar, then it is necessary not only to thoroughly wash it, but also to sterilize it. However, in most laboratories, as a rule, such containers have not been accepted for several years. So to speak, these are vestiges of the past.
Regardless of which particular container you used, it is necessary to deliver the material to the laboratory within two hours after collection. Only compliance with all of the above conditions can guarantee a reliable result.
The purpose of the
analysis The Nechiporenko study makes it possible to determine the latent inflammatory process by counting the number of cylinders, erythrocytes and leukocytes in 1 ml of the material taken.
If the patient has figured out how to collect a urinalysis by Nechiporenko, and did everything right, in a few hours he will be able to find out exactly what problems he has. In addition to identifying hidden inflammatory processes, such as cystitis or pyelonephritis, the study will help determine the onset of urolithiasis or renal parenchyma lesions. In addition, it is this study that allows for precise control of the effectiveness of treatment, which is carried out with the help of antibacterial agents.
How is the
Many patients are interested not only in deciphering the urine analysis by Nechiporenko, they are curious what happens to the material they collected in the laboratory. People want to know exactly how the research is carried out. The analysis is carried out as follows. The portion of urine brought to the laboratory is mixed, from it 5-10 ml is poured into the tube. After this, the container with the selected liquid is centrifuged for three minutes at a speed of 3500 rpm. After the procedure, the top layer of urine is drained, only 1 ml with sediment is left in the test tube, which must be mixed well. It merges into a special chamber, where the count of erythrocytes, cylinders and, of course, leukocytes is counted.
Explanation of the result
In order to understand whether everything is in order with the body, it is necessary to know which norm of urine analysis is established by Nechiporenko. Ideally, in this study, no more than 2,000 white blood cells per 1 ml of the test fluid should be detected( for women, an increase of up to 4,000 is permissible).In the field of view, there should be from 1 to 6. Erythrocytes should be up to 1000 units in each ml. That is, in the field of vision, the norm will be 1-3.A cylinder in the test material should be no more than 20 pieces.
An increase in any of the indicators indicates a problem. If you get an analysis result, where red blood cells, leukocytes or cylinders are larger than the specified number, you need to go to the doctor to find out the reasons for the changes.
Abnormalities and possible
problems It is enough for a specialist to take a single look at the results of studies to identify the inflammatory process, the onset of urolithiasis, or other diseases. However, the doctor before appointment of treatment can specify, whether you know, how to collect the analysis of urine on Nechiporenko. After all, the slightest violation of technology can lead to the ingress of foreign impurities into the biological fluid, which leads to a distortion of the results.
Any inflammation promotes an increase in white blood cells. If at you in the analysis 10-15 units in the field of vision appear, it speaks about the beginning of pathological process. But a serious inflammation will cause a significant increase in the number of substances mentioned. They will be about 40-50 in sight. But remember, the indicator of 10 units most often speaks of a poor hygienic toilet.
But the increase in the level of erythrocytes( this phenomenon is also called "blood in the urine") is called hematuria. In this case, it is important to know how many bodies are in the altered state( leached), and which - in the usual. It is from these data that the nature of the problem is judged. If there are permanent erythrocytes in the urine, this may indicate an inflammatory disease, such as cystitis or urethritis. An increase in their number can also talk about the passage of the kidney stone along the urinary tract.
Detection of altered red blood cells indicates problems with the kidneys. Their number increases with pyelonephritis, glomerulonephritis or even with kidney tuberculosis. To identify these pathologies, you need to know which standard is set for each of the indicators.
Nechiporenko analysis also helps to detect epilepsy or viral hepatitis. Such problems are indicated by an increase in the number of cylinders. But do not panic at once - they can be more than normal if you have had increased physical activity the day before.
Urine Examination of Pregnant
Women who wait for a baby are sometimes prescribed such a study. But the interpretation of the results in this case should be approached more closely. So, for example, the increase in the number of leukocytes is often observed in expectant mothers. This is due to the fact that the growing uterus presses on the kidneys, and all this is aggravated by the attachment of the infection.
But the increase in the number of cylinders can be a consequence of the development of toxicosis. No less careful should be given to the growth of red blood cells. This is often enough, because it is in an interesting situation in women exacerbated all chronic diseases, but sometimes this may be a consequence of squeezing the urinary tract by the uterus. Before treatment, it is better to go for ultrasound of the kidneys and bladder.
If a future mother was assigned such a study, then she should take seriously advice on how to collect a urinalysis by Nechiporenko during pregnancy. It is advisable not only to thoroughly wash yourself, but also to make a small cotton swab, with which you can prevent the excretion of vaginal discharge into the urine.
Analysis in Children
In pediatrics, the analysis we are considering is also not uncommon. Children are appointed after problems are identified in a general study of the biomaterial, with suspicion of sluggish inflammation, to monitor the effectiveness of the treatment, as well as to establish hidden leukocyturia and hematuria.
Norms in this case are no different from adults. True, it is permissible to increase the number of leukocytes to 4000 units in 1 ml of the liquid being examined. Children, as well as adults, may have pyelonephritis, cystitis, kidney stone disease, glomerulonephritis, kidney tuberculosis. Each of the diseases can be suspected by the doctor with the corresponding deviations from the norm.