Gardnerella - what is it? This type of microorganism is called Gardnerella vaginalis, it is present in a small amount in the microflora in women.
Gardnerella is an anaerobic, i.e.developing in the absence of air actinobacterium. Its size is slightly more gonococcus. Under certain conditions gardnerellas begin to actively multiply and displace the normal microflora of the vagina and urethra. The disease is developing gardnerellez. This disease does not apply to STIs( sexually transmitted infections).What kind of bacterium is a gardnerella? Photos of this microorganism can be found in medical sources and on multiple sites dedicated to women's health.
Men with this disease do not suffer, in their body gardnerellas do not develop. But in 10% of cases they can become spreaders of this disease, and also with a decrease in immunity these microorganisms can cause some complications related to masculine health:
Reasons for the development of Gardnerella
Gardnerella - what is it, and under what circumstances does this microorganism become the cause of the disease? Among the factors contributing to the development of gardnerellez, the most common are:
- Venereal infections, such as chlamydia, trichomoniasis, gonorrhea and other STIs.
- Hormonal failures - they can be caused by various factors, for example, pregnancy. Gardnerella during pregnancy, as well as thrush, is often found in smears, and this condition requires certain treatment.
- Disturbances in the diet. So, one of the reasons for the development of this disease may be inadequate use of lactic acid products.
- Some contraceptives containing hormonal drugs, 9-nonoxynol or condoms with spermicidal lubrication, as well as the use of antibacterial suppositories and ointments can lead to an imbalance of the vaginal microflora and provoke the development of gardnerellez.
- Frequent change of sexual partners.
- Decreased immunity and immunodeficiency states.
- Chronic infections, leading to an imbalance in the intestinal and urogenital microflora.
- Stress and heavy physical and emotional overload.
This disease can occur in acute and chronic form. In the chronic course of this pathology, symptoms may be completely absent. In this case, gardnerella are found in the smear accidentally, usually with preventive examinations.
In the acute course of the disease, women are troubled by pathological pasty discharge from the vagina with an unpleasant "fishy" smell. In color they are grayish-white, the consistency is homogeneous. During sexual intercourse and urination, itching and burning. When gynecological examination, inflammatory changes in the vagina, urethra and in the cervical region are noticeable.
Gardnerella, if left untreated, can cause complications such as endometritis( inflammation of the uterus) and adnexitis( inflammation of the appendages).These inflammatory processes in this disease can provoke a monthly, artificial termination of pregnancy, childbirth, as well as intrauterine spirals.
Usually the diagnosis of gardnerellez does not cause difficulties. A gynecologist's examination and complaints of a woman for unpleasant sensations, as well as laboratory data( these microorganisms are clearly visible in stained gynecological smears) confirm this diagnosis. When evaluating laboratory data, attention is paid not only to the presence of the pathogen in the smear, but also its quantity - this is what makes it possible to diagnose. The ratio of microorganisms in the resulting vaginal secretion is also estimated.
Gardnerella during pregnancy. What threatens the baby?
These microorganisms can cause inflammation in the body of a pregnant woman. As already mentioned above, this may contribute to the hormonal changes in pregnancy.
Gardnerella - what is it, and how can this microorganism threaten the fetus?
If the pregnancy is developing a similar disease, while the child is in the womb, it is not in danger becauseit is protected by the placenta. Infection of the baby occurs during labor during the passage of the birth canal. But the gardnerella is not a highly pathogenic microorganism, besides it can carry out its vital activity only without access to air, so after hygienic treatment of a newborn, such infection usually passes without a trace and complications. But when the disease is untreated advanced stage can lead to the birth of the baby underweight or provoke him after the birth of pneumonia and other pathologies.
What is dangerous gardnerellez for a future mother?
Gardnerella - what is it, and what is dangerous for a pregnant woman? For the health of the future mother, this microorganism is not so harmless. It can cause inflammation of the urogenital system, pathological uterine bleeding, premature rupture of the membranes during labor and complications in the puerperium, for example, the development of endometritis and possible infertility in the future.
When gardnerellez treatment is mandatory. The causative agent of the disease is resistant to sulfonamides, cephalosporins, aminoglycosides and tetracycline drugs. The disease is treated with the drug "Metronidazole"( "Trichopol").It is prescribed for oral administration of one tablet per day for 7-10 days. Additionally used vaginal tablets, or gel "Metrogil", or "Flagil."
Men do not need gardnerellez. But if a woman( sexual partner) plans a pregnancy, then it is necessary to treat both.
Violation vaginal flora often occurs due to decreased immunity, so it is recommended to take vitamins and eat right during pregnancy.
When treating serious diseases with the use of antibiotics, one should not forget about immunostimulation. Constant sexual partners are a reliable way to protect against STI.Observance of elementary rules of hygiene is also an important stage of prevention.