Paranoia's disease implies the presence of a person suffering from this pathology of suspicion and the certainty that others want to offend him and cause harm. Everything and everything in the environment of paranoia are subjected to distrust and suspicion. Although it is absolutely clear to objective observers that there is no danger in fact, neither in words, nor in the actions of others.
According to some scientific studies, 6% of women and 13% of men have a chronic lack of confidence in the motivation of others towards them. But only in 0,5-0,25% of women and men the diagnosis of "paranoid personality disorder" can be really exposed. Interestingly, in men paranoid traits and mental disorders with paranoid traits are more common than in women.
The term "paranoia" was first used in 1863 by the German Karl Ludwig Kalbaum, who was a psychiatrist. After that, they began to believe that paranoia is such mental disorders as delirium of persecution, delirium grandeur and simi
It can be said that all people are subject to paranoia in one way or another. Causes of paranoia in healthy people:
- stressful situation at work,
- difficulties in personal life.
How to get rid of paranoia in this case? Overcoming crisis moments in a person's life will help to correct the situation.
Definition of paranoia
Each of us heard the words "paranoid" or "paranoia" at least once in our life. However, what is hidden behind these concepts, not everyone knows. Paranoia is considered serious mental disorders, which are exaggerated and unreasonable distrust of others.
Paranoia is a disease more often than the elderly. However, it happens that the disease is not associated with age. Often, the cause of paranoia can be destructive changes occurring in the brain in diseases of Alzheimer, Huntington, Parkinson and others. Drugs and alcohol are also often provoked by paranoia.
There are a large number of subtypes of the disease, for example, paranoia due to alcohol consumption, which develops when excessive hot drinks are consumed. Persecutory paranoia is a disease characterized by delusions of persecution. Paranoia of conscience causes self-flagellation and the development of depressive states.
How does paranoia manifest itself? Symptoms of this disease can be different. Signs of Paranoia:
- the appearance of ridiculous ideas that are firmly held;
- constant logical development of these ideas;
- paranoid ideas arise from auditory hallucinations that regularly deliver information for delusions.
Many faces can be paranoia. Symptoms of this disease are as follows:
- Self-referential thinking: the patient feels that even absolutely unfamiliar people around him always talk about him.
- The feeling that the thoughts of the paranoid can be read by the surrounding people( the translation of thought).
- Magic thinking, which is characterized by a sense of paranoid ability to use their thoughts to influence the actions and thoughts of others.
- Conclusion of the thought: the paranoid personality feels that others are stealing her thoughts.
- Feeling that the thoughts of others are wedged into his own thoughts. This is called the introduction of thought.
- The idea of treatment: Paranoid is sure that television and / or radio are addressed specifically to him.
Stages of development of paranoia
There are several stages of chronic paranoia. The first is preparatory. For some time in the behavior and conversation of the patient, delirium does not yet appear. Man continues to live and work as before, however he becomes more prone to suspicion and distrust. The patient comes to the conclusion that the surrounding people began to treat him differently, and begins to show aggression to the fictitious enemies. In his head, a plan for self-defense ripens. During this period, others do not yet suspect the presence of the disease. And only after a certain number of months there is a change in the character of the patient.
Then the disease goes to the second stage - delusional. The patient begins to develop more detailed paranoid plans. This can last a considerable number of years. A person has ridiculous ideas, which are expressed mostly in pursuit. He often feels in his life the presence of some spies threatening him, forcing him to perform certain actions, including against his will. This compromises, destroys, plagues the patient, leads him to suicidal moods and puts him in a desperate situation. A person becomes embittered, often in conflict, regularly complains and writes angry letters to various instances.
Paranoia: causes of
Paranoid attacks can often cause depressive states, severe emotional stress, long isolation from society, low self-esteem, and physical or moral-spiritual loneliness. Paranoia is a heightened sense of reality, to which all people are exposed in one way or another. Sometimes paranoia is expressed in minor personality disorders.
The chemical and physical processes taking place in the brain in this disease have not yet been fully studied. However, paranoia can be a sign of various mental disorders, and also occurs in certain physical illnesses. In addition, when taking certain drugs or chemicals, there may be signs of paranoia in people who are beyond the validity of these medications are quite normal.
So, paranoia is often part of a complex of symptoms of schizophrenia. Due to the fact that patients are often isolated from reality, they suffer from hallucinations, characterized by blunted or missing emotions, unorganized thinking and behavior.
Diagnosis of paranoia
Thus, paranoid personality disorder is diagnosed in the absence of other symptoms of schizophrenia in a person.
Paranoid personality disorder is diagnosed if at least four of the following signs are present in a person with this pathology:
- Constant suspicion about lies and deceptions in the world around them.
- A frequent concern is the fidelity or the possibility of trusting one or another individual.
- Fearing betrayal, patients can not trust others.
- Harmless events or comments can be distorted and perceived as threatening.
- Long claims to the surrounding people, the latter being perceived as threatening or in some way offensive.
- Words or certain actions of surrounding people may seem to some extent aggressive, hence the readiness to go into a counterattack any minute.
- Repeated unreasonable accusations of a spouse or partner in treason.
Disease, which is very difficult to treat, is considered paranoia. Treatment is difficult and takes a long period of time because:
- people suffering from this pathology rarely seek specialized care;
- patients very rarely agree with the fact that they have a disease - paranoia;
- , even close people who seek medical help, are perceived by the sick as the worst enemies;
- if treatment is still carried out, then patients are sure of the guilt of others, including doctors, in all their troubles and troubles.
Thus, if the patient does not realize his pathology, then the therapy will be ineffective.
How to get rid of paranoia?
The identification of the cause of the disease is the first thing to take in the treatment of paranoia. If the disorder was caused by an easily reversible situation, for example, it is a side effect of the drug, then eliminating the situation( abandoning narcotic drugs) will lead to getting rid of the symptoms of the ailment.
Patients suffering from other diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease or other forms of oligophrenia, Huntington's disease or Parkinson's disease, feel better when treating the underlying disease. As the main pathology progresses, the symptoms of paranoia may eventually return or worsen.
CBT( cognitive-behavioral therapy) or other forms of psychotherapy are very effective in the treatment of some patients. This type of therapy helps to increase the awareness of people about their motivations and actions, helps in interpreting the signals of the environment, changing the dysfunctional behavior.
Adequate social adaptation, constant support of relatives and relatives contribute to recovery.
The following medicines are used:
- Traditional antipsychotics. They have another name - neuroleptics. Their use has become possible since the 1950s. These substances block dopamine receptors in the brain. This is the principle of their action. This hormone is a neurotransmitter. There is an opinion that dopamine is involved in the development of various delusions. Among this group of drugs are Thorazine, Haldol, Prolixin, Navan, Stelazin, Mellaril and Trilafon.
- Atypical antipsychotics. This group of drugs is more modern and effective. When they are used, the serotonin receptor is blocked - the neurotransmitter, which is also involved in delirium formation. This group consists of "Risperdal", "Serokel", "Klozaril", "Ziprexa" and "Geodon".
- Other medications. Possible appointment of tranquilizers and antidepressants. If there is a high level of anxiety or sleep problems, sedatives are used.
Forecast for paranoia
Many factors are important in predicting the outcome of the disease. For example, not the last role is played by the patient's character store, as well as the form of delusional disorder, certain life circumstances. After all, if medical care is not available and there is no desire to be treated, then the effect of such therapy will not be.
If the cause of paranoia is the presence of a major mental pathology, for example, schizophrenia, treatment activities will be carried out for life. The condition of the patient can improve somewhat with remission. Exacerbation can occur in various stressful situations or changes in the course of chemotherapy.
When paranoia occurs against the background of the use of narcotic drugs or drugs, treatment can consist only in refusing to take these substances.