In endocrinology the most studied and widespread disease is hypothyroidism of the thyroid gland. The disease is a decrease in the functioning of the thyroid gland, which leads to the production of hormones T3 and T4 in insufficient quantities. The development of the disease can occur at any age, but the risk group is people from 45 to 50 years.
One can not keep silent about the fact that such a disease affects women more, especially those who overcame the mark in 65 years or who live in regions that are far from the sea. The onset of development quite often coincides with the climacteric period.
There are two types of hypothyroidism of the thyroid gland: primary and secondary.
- disease Symptoms of disease
- life after removal of the thyroid gland
- Syndrome Treatment disease
- Treatment of children
- Treatment of elderly
- diet - one of the areas of treatment
- products Approved products
disease begin this part of the conversation is necessarywith the fact that hypothyroidism of the thyroid gland arises against a background of chronic inflammation of the thyroid gland, which is associated with impaired workmmunnoy system. If you delve into the details, then the emergence of primary hypothyroidism is preceded by:
- surgery on the gland;
- treatment of thyroid gland with radioactive iodine or ionizing radiation;
- inadequate intake of iodine;
- taking certain medications;
- chronic and acute infections of the thyroid gland.
- trauma of the above organs.
Symptoms of the disease
It is important to know not only the causes of the disease, but also its symptoms. When the disease is observed:
- decrease in blood pressure indicators;
- swelling of the legs and hands, provoked by the accumulation of a certain mucus in the tissues;
- weight gain against the background of worsening metabolism( weight gain is unimportant due to a lack of appetite in the patient);
- constipation and meteorisms;
- excessive fatigue;
- slowing down the processes of thinking and speech;
- malfunction of the menstrual cycle;
- chills( even in a warm room);
- fragility and dryness of hair, their loss;
- yellowish skin tone;
- hearing problems;
- voice change.
From what has been said, it can be concluded that the symptoms of hypothyroidism of the thyroid gland are sufficiently blurred. Nevertheless, they need to know, because the disease is fraught with serious complications.
If we talk about small children who are afflicted with this disease, it is worthwhile to clarify that inadequate or delayed treatment can lead to an extreme degree of delay in mental and physical development. Nevertheless, children older than three years are quite resistant to changes in the central nervous system. But the disease can significantly slow the growth of the child.
In young as well as adulthood, the clinical picture of the disease has more vivid symptoms than those that occur in the elderly.
When listing the symptoms of the disease, it is worth noting that some of them are primary.
However, the primary symptoms may appear differently:
- by the numbness of the hands;
- frequent forgetfulness;
- mental retardation.
As already mentioned, the symptoms of the disease are rather vague and can not clearly indicate the presence of the disease. Here it is necessary to understand the defeat of the sense organs: a vision disorder, ringing in the ears and hearing loss.
It is impossible not to mention that hypothyroidism of the thyroid gland in most cases affects the heart. In this case, a slow heart rate is observed - less than 60 beats per minute.
Life after removal of the thyroid
There are often cases when the thyroid gland is not possible. Therefore, surgeons resort to its seizure. Involuntarily the question arises, how to live patient after removal of this gland?
There are three diagnoses that entail mandatory surgical intervention:
- Papillary carcinoma.
- Follicular tumor.
- Anaplastic carcinoma.
After removal of the thyroid gland of the patient, the symptoms characteristic of the disease to be diagnosed accompany life. There is also a certain symptomatology:
- metabolic disorder;
- malfunctions in the operation of thermoregulation mechanisms;
- decrease in body temperature.
As a result, they lead to atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases and impaired vascular wall permeability.
Treatment of the disease
Today, medicine makes almost no distinction as to the treatment of patients after removal of the thyroid gland, which begin to get used to a new way of life and those whose iron is malfunctioning. Many doctors also do not differentiate the treatment of thyroid gland and the support of the body that lost it. After all, in general, everything comes down to the delivery in the required amount of hormones that are produced by the thyroid gland.
However, after removal, all treatment will consist exclusively of replacement therapy, consisting of taking medications that are hormones produced by the thyroid gland. One of the most common is the "L-thyroxine" remedy. If we talk about healing patients with disorders in the work of this gland, then the situation will be slightly different.
As a rule, treatment of the disease requires lifelong replacement therapy. It is carried out in two stages:
- Elimination of a deficiency of thyroid hormones.
- Selection of maintenance dose.
Treatment of children
If we talk about children, then the treatment of hypothyroidism of the thyroid gland goes according to the same scheme, but with different doses of drugs.
For such patients, treatment is recommended to start with small doses with a gradual increase. If, in the case of a disease, there are abnormalities in the functioning of the brain structures, thyrotropinililization and / or thyroid-stimulating hormones, which are not hormones produced by the thyroid gland, may be prescribed.
As a result of the selection of the necessary doses is rare, but there is an overdose, expressed as:
- heart palpitations;
- sleep disturbance;
- signs of toxicosis.
The correct dosage will be accompanied not only by the absence of complaints of well-being in children, but also by their normal growth and general development.
Treatment of the elderly
There are some features. In any case, the treatment will be based on diagnosis and symptomatology data. However, the symptoms of the presence of thyroid hypothyroidism may also be manifested by the effects of medications taken by the elderly. However, after the removal of the thyroid gland, it is much easier to treat such patients, since there is a clear cause of the hormonal failure.
With such a disease in elderly and elderly people the main issue is to provide them with the most comfortable standard of living, regardless of the disease. Applying substitution therapy, including after removal of the gland, there is a risk of worsening of cardiovascular diseases.
In general, the following medicines are used for treatment:
- modern synthetic varieties of thyroxine;
- itself, thyroxine;
- preparations of levothyroxine sodium in individually matched adequate doses.
Diet - one of the directions of treatment of
One of the ways of treatment is a diet with hypothyroidism of the thyroid gland. Therefore, it is very important to limit the intake of carbohydrates to 200 or 250 grams.and fats up to 80 or 100 gr.
These products include:
- fatty meat and fish;
- red and black caviar;
- sour cream;
Acceptable use of vegetable fats.
This diet is aimed at lowering the level of cholesterol in the blood, and it must also be followed after the normalization of the hormonal background. A strict diet should be maintained using:
- baking cakes;
- white bread;
- of sugar;
- sweet fruits and berries.
Dilute food can unsweetened fruits, vegetables in large quantities and products rich in vegetable fiber.
It should be remembered that a diet with a disease such as hypothyroidism of the thyroid gland also prohibits the use of salt that holds water in the body.
The danger is represented by a diet in which soy is introduced, which slows the production of thyroid hormones. Especially the warning is relevant for patients after the removal of this gland.
It is not necessary to consider that the diet that is required to comply with present hypothyroidism of the thyroid gland is too limited. First of all, the food is aimed at restoring the energy balance and normalizing the metabolism. Nevertheless, it can not be said that hypothyroidism acts as any kind of restrictor in the diet. The thyroid gland, working with malfunctions, even with the use of certain medicines is not an excuse to deny yourself everything.
Among the allowed products are:
- sour berries and fruits;
- broth brewed on bones or meat;
- natural coffee;
- raw vegetables;
So, hypothyroidism of the thyroid gland is not the reason that the diet was a test, and the food is tasteless. On the contrary, the diet will include proteins, vegetable fiber, vitamins and minerals.
The diet observed after removal of the thyroid gland should consist of boiled or stewed foods, but not fried. The number of meals can stay in a convenient mode for you.
Remember that a diet with such a disease can not do without dried fruits: dried apricots, dates, figs, fermented milk products and healthy cocktails.